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Exam Review - Plato - Descartes 2

Exam Review - Plato - Descartes 2 - Socrates and Plato Meno...

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Socrates and Plato Meno 1. Meno asks, “Can virtue be taught?” Socrates doesn’t answer this question when Meno first poses it, why not? 2. Meno gives a definition of virtue at 71e. What reason does Socrates give for rejecting this first definition? (72a-73c) 3. Meno tries again at 73d. What is his definition there, and what reasons does Socrates give for rejecting it? 4. Meno seems to be having a hard time understanding what Socrates is looking for, so Socrates uses some analogies to make it clearer. He gives Meno definitions of shape (76a) and color (76d). What’s his point? 5. Meno states a third definition at 77b. What is it? 6. Socrates attacks the first part of Meno’s definition (77c-78b). What fault does he find with it? 7. How does he argue against the second part of Meno’s definition? (78b-79e) 8. Meno becomes exasperated and he poses a question (at 80d). This question has come to be known as “Meno’s paradox.” What is it? 9. At this point Socrates introduces the idea that learning is recollection. What does he mean? 10. He then tries to prove this doctrine by questioning one of Meno’s slave boys, asking questions that lead the boy to an understanding of a truth of geometry. How is this supposed to prove the doctrine of recollection? Do you think that the proof is successful? 11. Meno asks (86d) to return to his original question about whether or not virtue can be taught. Socrates reluctantly agrees and proposes to try out a hypothesis. What is it? 12. How does Socrates argue that virtue is a form of knowledge (and, thus, teachable)? (87d-88d) 13. Socrates then says that, if virtue is knowledge, then there should be teachers and pupils of it. (89d-e) How does he then try to get Anytus (and then Meno) to admit that there are no teachers and pupils of virtue? (89c-96c) 14. Socrates introduces a distinction between ‘knowledge’ and ‘true opinion’ (87a-98a). What is the difference? 15. How does Socrates then argue that virtue must be true opinion? (98c-99c) Phaedo 1. What is Socrates' reasoning against suicide (62b-e)? 2. What are Socrates’ reasons for not fearing death (64a-69e3) 3. How does Socrates characterize philosophy at 64a? 4. What is death, according to Socrates? (64c) 5. What role does the body play in the philosophic life? (64d-67b) 6. Socrates give three arguments for the immorality of the soul. The first is the cyclical argument—a.k.a. the argument from opposites(69e-72e), describe this argument. a. What are some opposites that Socrates mentions? b. What does the nature of opposites tell us about the nature of life and death? c. In your opinion, is this a good analogy? Why or why not? 7. The second argument is ‘the argument from recollection’ (72e-78b), describe this argument (hint: it has to do with the form of equality).
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