Review questions Russell - Descartes

Review questions - Russell KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE AND KNOWLEDGE BY DESCRIPTION Russell asserts that there are three types of things that we know

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KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE AND KNOWLEDGE BY DESCRIPTION Russell asserts that there are three types of things that we know by acquaintance. The first is sense-data. Another is universals. What are the other two? According to Russell, do we know the self by acquaintance ? (hint: the answer is not ‘yes’) An example of a sense-datum (also a universal) that we know by acquaintance is the colour red. Can you think of any others? Give examples of the other types of things that we know by acquaintance. What is knowledge by description . Russell claims that physical objects are only known by description. Why does he claim this? Give some other examples of things that we know by description. On page 58-59 Russell states the ‘fundamental principle in the analysis of propositions containing description’. What is it? Are propositions made up of components that we know by acquaintance or by description ? Why does Russell think that this must be the case? What, according to Russell, is the ‘ chief importance of knowledge by description ’? Explain and evaluate his claim. TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD What is the difference between a criterion of truth (such as Descartes gives) and a definition of truth (such as Russell aims to provide)? On page 121 Russell gives three criteria that a definition of truth must satisfy. What are they? In general what is meant by truth by correspondence ? What is the apparent problem (mentioned in lecture) to this theory of truth? What is the alternative to the correspondence theory? What is the problem with this theory? Russell decides that truth must be defined as a correspondence between belief and fact (128). He illustrates with the example of the sentence ‘ Othello believes that Desdemona loves Cassio’ What is an object-term ? What are the object terms of Othello’s belief? What is an object-relation ? What is the object-relation of Othello’s belief? Russell claims that this belief is true when there is a corresponding fact, and is false when there is no corresponding fact (129).” What is a ‘corresponding fact’? (Explain with reference to ‘object-terms’, ‘object- relation’ and the ‘complex unity’ that is formed by the two—as laid out on 129). UNIVERSALS
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course PHIL 200 taught by Professor Mccall during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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Review questions - Russell KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE AND KNOWLEDGE BY DESCRIPTION Russell asserts that there are three types of things that we know

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