Lecture 4 - ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Professor Terrence Deacon...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Professor Terrence Deacon 01/26/12 Lecture 4 ASUC Lecture Notes Online is the only authorized note-taking service at UC Berkeley. Do not share, copy, or illegally distribute (electronically or otherwise) these notes. Our student-run program depends on your individual subscription for its continued existence. These notes are copyrighted by the University of California and are for your personal use only. D O N O T C O P Y Sharing or copying these notes is illegal and could end note taking for this course. ANNOUNCEMENTS By the looks of it, you should all be able to enroll in the class! I think we have enough seats to get everyone off the waiting list. See Julie Hui or Ana Casareto if you still need help finding an open section. LECTURE Last time, I ended by talking about what Darwin never knew. Darwin – in his original Origin of Species and all his subsequent work – was not aware of how genetics works. He had no knowledge about how traits were passed from one generation to the next. Because of this, the theory of natural selection is a very statistical type of argument, making few assumptions about reproduction , inheritance of traits , and competition of resources . But even with those few assumptions, he was able to make some remarkable claims about how evolution works. However, we have learned a lot about biology in the past 150 years. There is a very different story to be told today. Mendel’s basic discoveries were being worked out at roughly the same time as Darwin. Mendel was trying to come up with a regular prediction for how traits were passed on. He was only working with peas, but it should be generalizable with many different plants. He came up with a logic of inheritance by carefully breeding individuals and following the patterns of particular traits. He recognized that the traits are controlled by two interacting components ; in other words, that simple traits are controlled by an interaction between two „doses‟ of each gene type present in a plant. These traits can also hide or mask the effect of the other. This is where the terms dominant and recessive genes come from. Genes independently assort in the subsequent generation according to a simple binomial rule . For every trait, Mendel found two atoms of inheritance , which today we call genes . Mendel observed that generation upon generation, genes would get stuck together and interact, but with the next cycle of reproduction, they would be pulled apart again. Mendel‟s discovery was not paid much attention to at the time because people thought it was absurd that you could capture the concept of inheritance in simple numbers and calculations. His ideas were ignored for almost a half century until similar results were obtained in the 1900s by three other biologists: Hugo De Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak . The discovery of genes solidified
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course ANTHRO 1 taught by Professor Wilkie during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture 4 - ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Professor Terrence Deacon...

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