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Exam #2Chapter 6 The Nature of Work MotivationBook Definition of Work Motivation: The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence.Lecture Definition of Work Motivation: Motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate from both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration.The tree keyelements of work motivation are:Lecture: Direction, Intensity, PersistenceThe distinction between motivation and performance: Performanceis an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior: It involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a job. Motivationis only one factor among many that contributes to an employee’s job performance. The performance of a screenwriter for a television series, for example, is the extent towhich viewers find his scripts to be informative, entertaining, and engaging. Similarly, a research scientist’s performance is the extent to which her research advances knowledge, and a physician’s performance is the extent to which he provides high-quality care to patients.In summary, because motivationis only one of several factors that can affect performance, a high level of motivation does not alwaysresult in a high level of performance. Conversely, high performance does not necessarily imply that motivation is high: Employees with low motivation may perform at a high level if they have a great deal of ability. Managers have to be careful not to automatically attribute the cause of low performance to a lack of motivation or the cause of high performance to high motivationIntrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationIntrinsically motivated work behavioris behavior performed for its own sake; the source of motivation actually comes from performing the behavior itself, in other words. A professional violinist who relishes playing in an orchestra regardless of relatively lowpay and a millionaire CEO who repeatedly puts in 12-hour days because she enjoys her work are both intrinsically motivated. Employees who are intrinsically motivated often remark that their work gives them a sense of accomplishment and achievement or that they feel that they are doing something worthwhile.Extrinsically motivated work behavioris behavior performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. The behavior is performed not for its own sake but rather for its consequences. An employee can be extrinsically motivated, intrinsically motivated, or both.
Need Theory:A group of theories about work motivation that focuses on employees’ needs as the sources of motivation.Need theory focuses on the outcome side of the equation and on this question: What outcomes are individuals motivated to obtain from their jobs and organizations?The principal message of need theory is that employees have needs that they are motivated to satisfy in the workplace.