Harris Lectures 4 and 5 notes (1 per page)(1)

Harris Lectures 4 - To understand normal cell biology and disease we must understand the molecular machinery that functions inside cells to control

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1 To understand normal cell biology and disease we must understand the molecular machinery that functions inside cells to control their shapes, functions, interactions and numbers. Lectures 1-3: How do cells and tissues organize themselves spatially? 4-6: How do multicellular organisms develop? 4. Tissue morphogenesis 5. Tissue patterning 6. Stem cells 11-12: Development of Multicellular Organisms
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2 Multicellular development requires… 1. > The generation of tissue shapes that form organs and bodies 2. > The generation of the different cell types in tissues
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3 Morphogenesis and cell differentiation involve…
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4 Multicellular development is studied with a variety of model organisms
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5 Multicellular development creates different organisms and different organs within organisms
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6 In adults, multicellular development continually occurs from stem cells e.g. skin epithelia
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7 e.g. gut epithelia
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8 Adults can also initiate new developmental processes e.g. mammary gland epithelia
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9 The best studied form of multicellular development is > Importantly, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and stem cell development share common mechanisms of morphogenesis and cell differentiation .
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10 Animal embryogenesis begins with the formation of a ball of cells—the >
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11 Embryonic cells of the blastocyst have undergone minimal morphogenesis and cell differentiation Morphogenesis requires (1) internalization of cells (2) elongation of the embryo (3) fine repositioning of cells
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12 Internalization of cells during > ___________ creates the three main germ layers e.g. sea urchin > ĺ epidermis/nervous system > ĺ muscles/connective tissue/blood vessels > ĺ gut/lung/liver/etc
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13 Mechanisms of cell internalization 1. Ingression/delamination e.g. sea urchin > from the early outer epithelium An epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition What changes are required?
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14 e.g. Metastases: Cancerous tumors that invade other tissues Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions are dangerous during cancer progression
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15 Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions are tightly regulated during normal development e.g. a transplant experiment showing cells migrating from somites to specifically form limb muscles
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16 Mechanisms of cell internalization 2. Invagination/involution > move inside the embryo What changes are required?
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17 Mechanisms of cell internalization 2. Invagination/involution e.g. neural tube development from the ectoderm in vertebrates
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18 Mechanisms of cell internalization 2. Invagination/involution e.g. mesoderm internalization in Drosophila
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19 The invagination/involution site is regulated
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course BIOLOGY BIO230 taught by Professor Harris during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Harris Lectures 4 - To understand normal cell biology and disease we must understand the molecular machinery that functions inside cells to control

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