csb332h-m09 - Name Student Number UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ....

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Unformatted text preview: Name Student Number UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO . Faculty of Arts and Science Q. - 4%» é APRIL/MAY 2009 EXANIINATIONS ‘ W . CSB332HIS ' E Duration — 2 hours . I ‘9 _ No Aids Allowed HAND IN THIS EXAM PAPER, THE SCANTRON SHEET, AND THE EXAMINATION BOOKLET THAT CONTAIN YOUR ANSWERS BOTH SHOULD HAVE YOUR NAME AND STUDENT NUMBER 1. For the Scantron answer sheet make sure to have only ONE box marked for each answer. 2. Boxes that are left blank or have more than one box marked will be marked as incorrect. 3. Choose the BEST response for each question. ' This exam is consists of: PART 1- MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Total marks for this section = 25 PART 2- DIAGRAMS Total marks for this sectiOn = 15 PART 3- SHORT ANSWER Total marks for this section = 5 PART 4- LONG ANSWER Total marks for this section = 35 TOTAL MARKS = 80 Answer all questions in order in the exam booklets provided. Page 1 of8 For Part I — Please mark your answers on the Scantron sheet provided. Choose the BEST answer. Each question is worth 1 mark each. 1. Synaptic facilitation: A) lasts several hundred milliseconds B) is believed to be due to an increase in the mean number of quanta released C) appears instantly D) both B and C are correct E) A, B, and C are all correct 2. PTP likely occurs after a conditioning train of action potentials because: A) of hyperpolarization B) of an increase in transmitter release C) of a decrease in inhibition D) of a reduction in release efficacy E) of a depletion of quanta -3. How is the NMDA receptor DIFFERENT from the AMPA receptor? A) It binds to the neurotransmitter glutamate B) It is postsynaptic C) It is blocked at rest by Mg2+ D) both A and C are correct E) A, B, and C are all correct 4. Which of the following statements concerning the in vivo model of synaptic plasticity is - INCORRECT? A). Retinal axons initially establish topographic maps using activity dependent mechanisms B) Topographic refinement can be impaired by blocking retinal activity C) Topographic refinement can be impaired by uniformly synchronizing the retinal system D) Retinal arborization is initially large but becomes restricted to smaller tectal areas during normal development - E) The refinement of retino-tectal connections depends on the patterns of activity 5. Learning how to use a typewriter: A) is a good example of declarative. memory B) is a good example of episodic memory C) is a good example of semantic memory D) is a good example of procedural memory E) is a good example of autobiographical memory 6. The basal ganglia and cerebellum are particularly important for: A) declarative memory B) episodic memory C) semantic memory D) procedural memory E) autobiographical memory Page 2 of 8 7. In operant conditioning: A) there is an association between a reward and a punishment . B) the consequences must be immediate or clearly linked to the behaviour C) there is only a system of positive reinforcement D) there is only a system of negative reinforcement B) there is an association between unconditioned responses 8. The basal ganglia consists of: A) the caudate putamen B) the globus pallidus C) the ventrolateral thalamic nuclei D) both A and B are correct : E) A, B, and C are all correct 9. In muscle contraction: A) smaller motor units are activated first B) larger motor units are activated first 10. In the inverse myotactic reflex: A) stretch is detected by the golgi tendon organs B) the signal is sent to the spinal cord via type 1b afferent fibres C) the afierents make inhibitory synaptic connections to antagonist motoneurons D) both A and B are correct E) A, B, and C are all correct 11. In the sympathetic nervous system: . A) preganglionic neurons are located the cranial-sacral region of the spinal cord B) preganglionic neurons are located in the thoraco-lumbar region of the spinal cord 12. Which of the following modulates SCN electrical activity over 24 hour periods? A) GABA B) Norepinephrine C) Acetylcholine D) Glutamate - ’E) ATP 13. Isolated olfactory cells show the greatest sensitivity to applied odorants in: A) the distal dendrite B) the cell body C) the axon D) both A and B are correct _ E) A, B, and C are all correct Page 3 of8 . 14. Neurons from the lateral olfactory tract project to: A) the amygdala B) the limbic system C) the entorhinal cortex D) both A and B are correct E) A, B, and C are all correct 15. Taste receptor cells on the tongue: A) cannot be regenerated - B) have long axons C) have the same structure as nociceptors D) cannot sense hot chilis E) make electrical synapses 16. The capsaicin receptor is: ’ A) a calcium-sensitive cation channel B) a calcium-sensitiVe anion channel C) a voltage-dependent cation channel D) a voltage-dependent anion channel E) a potassium-dependent calcium channel 17. Which of the following cells within the Visual system can generate action potentials? v A) bipolar cells B) horizontal cells C) amacrine cells D) both A and B are correct E) A, B, and C are all correct 18. Within the photoreceptors, what keeps cation channels open? A) cAMP - B) cGMP C) PLC D) ATP E) boredom 19. Bipolar cells: A) receive direct inputs from only cones ~ B) can be classified by their responsiveness to GABA C) in the fovea are known as midget bipolar cells D) require lithium in order to function nOrrnally E) are also known as horizontal cells Page 4 of 8 20. The autonomic ganglia: A) receive cholinergic inputs B) use ionotropic Ach receptors C) use metabotropic Ach receptors D) both A and B are correct E) A, B and C are all correct 21. Photoreceptor cells release: A) GABA B) dopamine C) acetylcholine D) glutamate E) serotonin 22. Sweet and bitter tastants are similar to odorants because they: A) work directly on membrane conductances B) activate umami receptors I C) open Na+ channels D) block K+ channels E) work via G-protein coupled receptors 23. Anosmia: A) can be caused by a virus B) refers to the reduction or loss of olfaction C) is always congenital D) both A and B E) A, B, and C 24. The loss of visual dreams is associated with: . A) bilateral lesions to V1 B) unilateral lesions to V1 C) bilateral lesions to the oc'cipitotemporal region D) lesions to the optic nerve E) none of the above 25. Our level of consciousness is thought to be mediated by: A) the temporal lobe B) the ascending reticular activating system C) the subiculum D) the dentate gyrus E) the SCN Page 5 of 8 For Part 2 (15 marks) — Please write your answers in the Examination Booklet. Question 1 — please identify the different parts of the following diagram (in the examination booklet) — 1 Mark for each Molecules found in B » Substance released from A Question 2. — Identify the 2 different pathways found in the hippocampus used to test for plasticity in the diagram below (1 mark each) ‘ . CA3 Dentate gyms, . Question 3 —— identify the changes a crayfish stretch receptor is undergoing in the following dial am (1 h f r A Question 4 — Draw a diagram and label it showing the organization of an on-center cell. Show the pattern of AP firing when light is shone on each field and in the case of diffuse illumination (make sure to label where the light is falling on the field for each AP firing pattern) (4 marks) Question 5 — Identify the cells shown in the following diagram (3 marks). Also indicate in your answer, which cells (if any) normally release GABA (2 marks) Part 3 (5 marks) - Please write your answers in the Examination Booklet._ (1- mark for each of the following): ~ . - . _ 1. An activity dependent form of synaptic plasticity can also referred to as a synapse 2. Give the definition of a motor unit. 3. What is prosopoagnosia? 4. What NT is released by sympathetic axons innervating blood vessels in skeletal muscle? 5. List two subdivisions (or types) of declarative memory. Page 7 of 8 Part 4 - Please write your answers in the Examination Booklet. Do NOT Write the answers on this test paper as it will not be graded (5 marks total for each question): 1. A. How can you test for synaptic plasticity electrophysiologically? (2 marks) B. How did Bliss and Lomo originally strengthen synapses? Give details (1 mark) C. What is spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity? (1 mark) D. What is a positive spike-timing interval? (1 mark) ' 2. _ A. What is associatiVe LTP? (1 mark) . B. Explain the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in this form of LTP (3 marks) . C. You design an enzymatic inhibitor to block LTP — which enzyme do you inhibit? (0.5 mark). D. What effects, if any would blocking the enzyme in C have at the receptor level? (0.5 mark) _ 3. Discuss the signal transduction pathway in olfactory cilia after an odorant binds (5 marks) : 4. Discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in tasting something bitter. Is this the same or different than how we taste something sour? Make sure to discuss receptors and ions (5 marks) . 5. Discuss in detail the neurochemical AND electrical events occurring in your photoreceptors when you are sitting in a dark room (4 marks). Outline what happens in a bright room (1 mark). 6. Draw and label the receptor, types of neurons in the spinal cord, and outflow to the agonist (label on diagram) and antagonist (label on diagram) muscles in the myotactic reflex (3 marks). Discuss whether this is a true monosynaptic response (2 marks). Note you do net have to anatomically identify the muscles or nerves (i.e. femoral, quadriceps etc) but you should label whether a synapse is excitatory, and how the reflex is initiated etc. 7. A Parkinson’s patient comes to you for help after you have become a successful M.D. You remember your days as a CSB student and start to doodle as you did during lectures long ago. Draw and label the neuronal circuitry in the basal ganglia, and indicate clearly which areas are , excitatory and which are inhibitory in initiating movement (3.5 marks). What area in this circuit is affected in Parkinson’s Disease (0.5 marks). Which neurons in this motor circuit are tonically active? (0.5 marks). What would happen to movement if the neurons in the globus pallidus were selectively destroyed? (0.5 mark) Thanks for being such a wonderful class — have a safe and happy summer! Page 8 of8 ‘ ...
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csb332h-m09 - Name Student Number UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ....

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