BIO220-Slides-Lecture6-W2012

BIO220-Slides-Lecture6-W2012 - Perspectives on Evolutionary...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–17. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
0 ± Evolution and medicine ± Aging: proximate and ultimate causes ± Costs of reproduction ± The evolutionary theories of aging ± Mutation accumulation ± Antagonistic pleiotropy Perspectives on Evolutionary Medicine and an Introduction to Aging
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
1 Evolutionary Medicine Application of evolutionary principles to the problems of health Definition: Asks why (ultimate) rather than how (proximate) questions Approach: Better understanding = better prevention, treatment Utility?
Background image of page 2
2 Questions in Evolutionary Medicine •I s t h i s r e s p o n s e ( e . g . f e v e r , r e s i s t a n c e , virulence) adaptive, and for whom? •W h e n d o w e e x p e c t r e s i s t a n c e t o e v o l v e ? h e n d o w e e x p e c t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f e x t r e m e virulence? •A r e t h e r e m u l t i p l e o r i g i n s o f a d i s e a s e ? i l l v a c c i n e s l e a d t o e v o l u t i o n o f p a t h o g e n s ? • Why do we age?
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease
Background image of page 4
Tradeoffs: Structures and systems must balance conflicting demands + Longevity - Fecundity DNA Repair Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease Environmental Change: Environments change at a rate that exceeds our rate of evolution.
Background image of page 6
Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease Pathogen evolution: Pathogens evolve faster than we do.
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease Historical contingency:
Background image of page 8
Five Reasons Why We Are Vulnerable to Disease Defences: systems built for defence against pathogens and degradation come at some cost.
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
9 Aging
Background image of page 10
10 What is Aging or Senescence? Definition: •P r o g r e s s i v e d e c l i n e i n s o m a t i c function reflected in reductions in fertility as well as survivorship Proximate cause: r o g r e s s i v e d e g e n e r a t i o n o f the soma
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
11 Manifestations of Aging •G e n e r a l d e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e s o m a –Impa i red func t ion (speed , s t reng th , s igh t , e tc ) –Inc reased d isease (cance r , o rgan fa i lu re ) • Mortality rate increases with age
Background image of page 12
12 Senescence: An Evolutionary Mystery Explanation? Appears to be non-adaptive in the extreme We have evolved to age and die Observation:
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
13 Aging at Different Rates Humans and Fulmars
Background image of page 14
14 Mayfly 1 day Bristlecone Pine 5,000 years
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
15 Medical Views of Aging: Headlines Eat your ACEs: Vitamin E extends lifespan Exercise: Run to reduce heart disease Get rich: The rich live longer Diet restriction: Eat less, live longer But WHY has aging evolved?
Background image of page 16
Image of page 17
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course EEB BIO220 taught by Professor Locke during the Spring '12 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

Page1 / 53

BIO220-Slides-Lecture6-W2012 - Perspectives on Evolutionary...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 17. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online