BIO220-Slides-Lecture10-W2012

BIO220-Slides-Lecture10-W2012 - Final Topics in...

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1 Final Topics in Evolutionary Medicine • Evolution in a vaccinated world • Environmental change and health Myopia • Medical Physiology Fever
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2 Vaccine • Vaccines are biological treatments meant to improve immune responses to future exposures to specific diseases. • In essence the antigen in the vaccine primes the immune system so that it may respond quickly to future assaults. • Vaccines are often dead or living (but attenuated) pathogens. • Others are parts of the pathogen, or its toxic agent, that elicit a response by the immune system
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3 Common vaccine types • Live Attenuated • polio (OPV), measles, mumps, tuberculosis • Killed • polio (IPV), flu, cholera, hepatitis A • Toxoids (inactivated toxic compounds) • Diphtheria, tetanus
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4 Smallpox • Smallpox is a virus which once widespread and sometimes fatal infectious disease • spread by inhalation of airborne virus particles or direct contact or contact with contaminated material • a world wide vaccination program eliminated the disease • last case in USA 1949, and in world 1977 (Somalia).
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5 The smallpox vaccine • In the 1700’s it was common knowledge that milkmaids did not get smallpox. • Milkmaids did get a much less virulent, though similar disease, cowpox. • In 1796 Jenner began exposing patients to the puss from blisters of infected milkmaids. • Then subsequently determined they were immune to smallpox. Edward Jenner
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6 Vaccine preventable diseases Anthrax Cervical Cancer Diphtheria Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae b Human Papillomavirus (HPV) H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Influenza (Seasonal Flu) Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Lyme Disease Measles Meningococcal Monkeypox Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Poliomyelitis (Polio) Rabies Rotavirus Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Smallpox Tetanus (Lockjaw) Tuberculosis Typhoid Fever Varicella (Chickenpox) Yellow Fever
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7 Evolution in a vaccinated world • Antibiotics are failing with increasing frequency, due to evolutionary responses. What about vaccines? • Immune systems are sources of massive selection on
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BIO220-Slides-Lecture10-W2012 - Final Topics in...

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