Week 1 Slides LIN200 2012 - LIN200 S Introduc/on to...

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Unformatted text preview: LIN200 S Introduc/on to Language Winter 2012 •  Professor: Susana Bejar •  Office Hours: Tuesdays 4:30 ­6:00 •  Office: SS 4080, Linguis/cs Dept, 4th floor Sid Smith Hall •  Phone: N/A •  Email: sbejar@chass.utoronto.ca Readings •  Textbook: Linguis'cs for Everyone. Second Edi/on. 2011. Kris/n Denham and Anne Lobeck. Wadsworth. Boston. •  Addi/onal readings will be posted on Blackboard. Tutorials • All tutorials are on Thursdays, 4pm or 5pm (for 1 hr) • star/ng January 26 Evalua/on Homework assignments 30% Midterm test 20% Final exam 35% Research project dra` N/A Research project + dra` 15% Tutorial wri/ng ac/vi/es 10% Course Objec/ves •  Develop a broad understanding of human language from the perspec/ve of various subdisciplines of linguis/cs, with special emphasis on linguis/cs as a cogni/ve science. •  Examine your own linguis/c beliefs and actudes, as well as prevalent beliefs/ actudes in the community. Course Objec/ves •  Develop awareness of both the diversity of language systems and their fundamental similari/es •  Prac/se some core tools and techniques of linguis/c analysis and argumenta/on. The study of language as a cogni/ve science – At its core, the study of linguis/cs = the study of the mind – Goal for today’s lecture: to develop the above statement – Core claim: • Language is fundamentally a biological artefact, not a cultural artefact (although it is deeply embedded in culture and, is culturally transmihed in important ways) Steven Pinker 1994. The language Ins/nct. New York: William Morrow and co. Noam Chomsky • We will focus on two lines of evidence: – Innateness of language – Uniqueness of language to humans Innateness •  Does universality = innateness? •  "The universality of language is a discovery that fills linguists with awe, and is the first reason to suspect that language is not just a cultural inven/on but the product of a special human ins/nct. Cultural inven/ons vary widely in their sophis/ca/on from society to society. Some groups count by carving notches on bones and cook on fires ignited by spinning s/cks in logs; others use computers and microwave ovens. Language, however, are different. There are Stone Age socie/es, but there is no such thing as a Stone Age language.” — Steven Pinker “When it comes to linguis/c form, Plato walks with the Macedonian swineherd, Confucius with the head ­hunter of Assam." — Edward Sapir (1) Me capé buy, me check make (2) Building — high place— wall pat — /me— now/me—an’den— ­a new tempecha eri /me show you (3) Good, dis one. Kaukau any ­kin’ dis one. Pilipine islan’ no good. No mo money. Vervet monkeys hhp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEzT ­85gEdA Honey Bees •  hhp://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ­7ijI ­g4jHg Zebra Finches •  hhp://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/000036.html Arbitrariness of the sign Dog Chien Perro Kaleb etc •  Morpheme = smallest indivisible unit of meaning Free vs. Bound Free •  English: ‘dog’ • English: ‘like’ Bound •  English:  ­er in ‘singer’ •  Spanish: ‘gust’ in gust ­ar (means ‘like’) •  English: a. perceive, receive, deceive, conceive b. persist, resist, desist, consist c. pertain, retain, detain, contain • The study of how morphemes combine is called morphology. Interna/onal Phone/c Alphabet (IPA) • The study of how individual segments of sound combine is called phonology •  The study of how individual words (and some/mes morphemes) combine to form larger cons/tuents like phrases and clauses is called syntax. ‘The dog bit the man.’ vs. ‘The man bit the dog.’ Y ­Model syntax sound meaning Descrip/on vs. Prescrip/on Descrip9ve observa9on •  There ain’t nobody here. •  There isn’t anybody here. Compare: •  *That book, I like this magazine and. Prescrip9ve norm •  *There ain’t nobody here. •  There isn’t anybody here. • Watch out for ungramma/cality vs. differences of dialect or register •  Competence: our knowledge of the language we speak (e.g. our grammacality judgements) •  Performance: what comes out when we use language Readings for next week •  Chapter 1 (corresponds to today’s lecture) •  Chapters 7 •  Mar/n 1986 American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 88, No. 2 (Jun., 1986), pp. 418 ­423 •  hhp://onesearch.library.utoronto.ca/ ...
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