Week 8 Slides LIN200 2012 - LIN200 S Introduc/on to...

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LIN200 S Introduc/on to Language Winter 2012 1
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Today The topic for today’s lecture is and phonology 2
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Phone/cs The study of sounds ( phones ) made (and heard) in the production of human speech. Describing the speech sounds that occur in the language of the world NB: Sounds, not spelling. – Written form of the language = orthography How is this different from phonology? Phonology is the study of the systematic patterning of sounds in human language ( sound systems) . I.e. the tacit knowledge of sound systems that speakers have 3
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Why spelling isn’t useful • No one-to-one correspondence between sound and spelling in English. /t/ / ʃ / /k/ <t> <k>, <ck>, <ch>, <qu>, <c> na t ion k ing Th omas che ck a tt en t ion ch ara c ter thea t re che qu e c ake 4
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‘gho/’ = ‘fsh’ (allegedly George Bernard Shaw’s example) gh=F (enough ) o=i (ribbo n, wo men) /=sh (mo/ on) 5
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Why this sound/spelling discrepancy? • External influences Pre-Norman spelling system (in Wessex) Norman French spelling influence (after 1066) Dutch influence — first English printer grew up in Holland spelling reforms to reflect (Latin?) etymology in the Renaissance • Internal change in pronunciation (will look at as part of Historical linguistics) • Geographic variation • Pronunciation differences according to situation or circumstance • Variation caused by sound environment (Phonology) 6
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Various approaches to the study of phone/cs: Acous/c phone/cs: Studyies the physics of the sound waves produced for language – Auditory phonetics: Studies perception of sounds by brain thru the human ear – Articulatory phonetics: Studies sounds in terms of their articulation in the vocal tract (our primary concern for this class). 7
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Ar/culatory Phone/cs Describing the articulation of speech sounds is not easy to do, because speech is continuous! http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/ VowelsandConsonants/course/transcription%20exercises/ moviepage.htm http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/ VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter1.1/ chapter1.1.htm 8
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Phonetic Alphabet Allows the sounds of languages to be transcribed consistently and comparably across languages (and linguists). 9
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Phone/c Alphabet In your book, consonants on pg. 74, 83; vowels on pg. 85 Numerous resources online (see links in these slides) - BUT! Note that on some websites, there could be some differences in symbols, particularly for the following consonants: š = / ʃ / ž = / ʒ / č = / t ʃ / ǰ = / d ʒ / Go with what your book does. 10
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Interna/onal Phone/c Alphabet (IPA) is an interna/onal standard for transcribing speech sounds across languages of the world. One oTen comes across transcrip/on systems
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Week 8 Slides LIN200 2012 - LIN200 S Introduc/on to...

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