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Week 8 Slides LIN200 2012 - LIN200 S Introduc/on to...

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LIN200 S Introduc/on to Language Winter 2012 1
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Today The topic for today’s lecture is phone&cs and phonology 2
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Phone/cs The study of sounds ( phones ) made (and heard) in the production of human speech. Describing the speech sounds that occur in the language of the world NB: Sounds, not spelling. Written form of the language = orthography How is this different from phonology? Phonology is the study of the systematic patterning of sounds in human language ( sound systems) . I.e. the tacit knowledge of sound systems that speakers have 3
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Why spelling isn’t useful No one-to-one correspondence between sound and spelling in English. /t/ / ʃ / /k/ <t> <k>, <ck>, <ch>, <qu>, <c> na t ion k ing Th omas che ck a tt en t ion ch ara c ter thea t re che qu e c ake 4
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‘gho/’ = ‘fish’ (allegedly George Bernard Shaw’s example) gh=f (enough ) o=i (ribbo n, wo men) /=sh (mo/ on) 5
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Why this sound/spelling discrepancy? External influences Pre-Norman spelling system (in Wessex) Norman French spelling influence (after 1066) Dutch influence — first English printer grew up in Holland spelling reforms to reflect (Latin?) etymology in the Renaissance Internal change in pronunciation (will look at as part of Historical linguistics) Geographic variation Pronunciation differences according to situation or circumstance Variation caused by sound environment (Phonology) 6
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Various approaches to the study of phone/cs: Acous/c phone/cs: Studyies the physics of the sound waves produced for language – Auditory phonetics: Studies perception of sounds by brain thru the human ear – Articulatory phonetics: Studies sounds in terms of their articulation in the vocal tract (our primary concern for this class). 7
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Ar/culatory Phone/cs Describing the articulation of speech sounds is not easy to do, because speech is continuous! http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/ VowelsandConsonants/course/transcription%20exercises/ moviepage.htm http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/ VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter1.1/ chapter1.1.htm 8
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Phonetic Alphabet Allows the sounds of languages to be transcribed consistently and comparably across languages (and linguists). 9
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Phone/c Alphabet In your book, consonants on pg. 74, 83; vowels on pg. 85 Numerous resources online (see links in these slides) - BUT! Note that on some websites, there could be some differences in symbols, particularly for the following consonants: š = / ʃ / ž = / ʒ / č = / t ʃ / ǰ = / d ʒ / Go with what your book does. 10
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Interna/onal Phone/c Alphabet (IPA) is an interna/onal standard for transcribing speech sounds across languages of the world. One oTen comes across transcrip/on systems that depart slightly from the official IPA symbols (for conven/onal, historical reasons).
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