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Biology Notes Exam 1

Biology Notes Exam 1 - Biology Notes 1202 Exam 1...

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Biology Notes 1202 –Exam 1 PowerPoint’s Online o Specie Humans are Homo sapiens . o Artificial selection-selected for particular phenotypes that are represented by specific genotypes. o Phenotype-physical traits o Genotype-a listing of the alleles for an individual Tell if individuals are from the same species o DNA sequences show differences o Biological Species Concept Two individuals in the same population (male and female) breed and create offspring that are viable. Male and female have to be close They both have to be awake You have to be interested in the same location Must have right parts to create the zygote-a single diploid cell Has to be delivered and alive and grow up to produce viable offspring Asexual organisms do not reproduce sexually. o E-Coli are bacterial cells-we share DNA sequence similarities with bacteria. Also similarities with every single living thing on the planet. All living things on the planet use DNA as their nuclear genomes. Some non-living things use single or double stranded RNA as their genomes. o RNA is used to make proteins. Different RNA’s are made and those produce different proteins. o We all have the same complement of 23 pairs of chromosomes. They come from the parents. There are somewhere between 20-50 trillion cells making up the human body. The 50 trillion cells come from other cells. Single diploid cell in the womb. One cell divided by the process of mitosis to produce trillions of cells. The cells came from the mother’s egg and the father’s sperm. The egg and sperm come from the process of meiosis. o X from mom and an X or Y from the dad Cell theory-cells on the planet today do not spontaneously form; they come from pre-existing cells. Mammals share very common characteristics: o The production of milk Humans Mammals Reptiles Family tree of life (phylogeny/evolutionary tree) All living things evolved from a common ancestor. Earth is 4.5-5 billion years old. o We lose Homo sapiens about 7.0 million years ago.
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o Primates appeared in the fossil records about 60 million years ago. 1 out of 100 will be different-99% of DNA will be identical We lived at the same time as another species that was Homo-the Neanderthals. Experiments to see if same species: o Mating o DNA sequencing Gene Expression and Regulation o A gene is on or a gene is off Genes have different function is specific parts of the body that can be on/off o A change in the DNA sequence-body will change the expression of genes to help make that mutation better. When sick, body will fight off When diabetic, body will try to create more sugar o The minute body fails to produce proteins, you die Proteins act as enzymes to catalyze and speed up reaction in the body- necessary Genes determine protein structure Genes form the code which create the amino acids which form the protein Sibling have slightly different gene sequences and therefore have slightly
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