DP-Cytology

DP-Cytology - Chapter 2: Cytology - See slide one for...

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Chapter 2: Cytology - See slide one for different types of cells - Slide 2: MUST STUDY!!!! LABELING A Generalized Cell - Cell (4 main sections) o Plasma membrane (PM): intra/extracellular boundary; flexible o Cytoplasm: substance between nucleus and PM Cytosol: semi-fluid component; water-based Site of many chemical reactions required for the cell’s existence Colloids: organic proteins, lipids, etc Cytoskeleton: protein rods that give cytoplasm shape; in the cytosol o Organelles: internal structures with specific functions o Inclusions: storage sites (ex: glycogen granules, melanin) - Nucleus: a large organelle that house most of a cell’s DNA Plasma Membrane (PM) functions - Flexible boundary - Facilitates contact with other cells - Contains receptors - Controls entry and exit - ELABORATED o Ion channels : holes through which specific ions can flow to get into or out of the cell; most of them are selective (integral proteins) o Other integral proteins act as carriers or transporters , selectively moving a polar substance from one side of the membrane to the other o Receptors : integral proteins that serve as a cellular recognition site; each type recognizes and binds to a specific type of molecule A specific molecule that binds to a receptor is called a ligand o Some integral proteins are enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions o Integral proteins also serve as linkers , which anchor proteins in the plasma membrane of neighboring cells to one another or to protein filaments inside and outside of the cell PM components (elaborated in purple) o Lipids Phospholipids (bilayer): polar head (hydrophilic) and fatty acid tail (hyrdophobic) Glycolipid with glycoproteins (sometimes connected to glycolipid) They both form glycocalyx=cell identity markers, lubrication
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Cholesterol: little orange things between phospholipid bilayer; as phospholipid aggregate, its function becomes limited (when there is too much cholesterol) o Integral proteins: come in different shapes and sizes Passive leakage: usually always open Chemically gated: integral protein has a receptor and receives a neurotransmitter Voltage gated: opens and closes in response to electrical charge o Peripheral proteins: on the outside and inside of the cell Parallel to bilayer Help give membrane shape Channel enzymes to kick start metabolic activity - Movement across PM o Passive transport : concentration gradient, no cellular energy (ATP) needed Diffusion
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DP-Cytology - Chapter 2: Cytology - See slide one for...

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