commresearch - Communication Research January 24, 2011 Week...

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Communication Research January 24, 2011 Week 2 WAYS OF KNOWING : HOW DO WE LEARN FROM THE WORLD AROUND US? Personal experience and indirect sources • Social learning: watch to see if others get rewarded or punished We learn about probability, and cause and effect (when you open a book and study, you do better) (we get a college degree in hopes of increasing probability to earn more money in the future) • Desire for prediction – but can we understand results? / be able to take control of our environments • E.g., Why is college worth your time? • Lucky streaks? Tradition: “because it’s always been that way.” (changes over time, develops) • Examples o how knowledge has been passed down: listen to lecture, test o political system • What are drawbacks? o Can make people less likely to look for better ways to do or learn things / resistance to change o Can make us resistant to new ideas / can men’s health affect the child’s outcome? Authority: the belief in the computer / people unquestioningly accept something an authority says • What are the limitations of depending on authority? o They can make mistakes too / (taking advice on soap operas as medical advice) Over generalizing: My one experience proves that… Inaccurate and selective observations • We reinforce what we already know ( or think we do) / polarized view: you only see things that agree with you! Illogical reasoning: parrot was dead, but he continued providing excuses that it was still alive / follow it to conclusion even thought it’s illogical **JIM BELIEVES**: “My 4-year old nephew has been watching a lot of violent TV cartoon shows. I noticed he gets more frustrated and uses more bad language. It must be the cartoons he’s watching that are making him behave like this!” How does he come to believe this claim? • EXAMPLE OF GENERALIZING, SELECTIVE OBSERVATION, CAUSE AND EFFECT **ANN BELIEVES**: “Democracy is the only reasonable form of government. All societies that don’t follow a democratic system are backwards.” • EXAMPLE OF TRADITION **JUDY BELIEVES**: “I’ve been trying to give up smoking forever. I bet those new smokeless cigarettes work if The Doctors give them a thumbs up!” • EXAMPLE OF AUTHORITY PROBLEMS WITH NON-SCIENTIFIC BELIEFS Based on limited knowledge
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Tend to believe that what is in our minds is the only truth Intuitive thinking (it just makes sense) Cognitive consistency • Consistent with our beliefs Authorities can make mistakes! Times and conditions may change – so thinking has to be self correcting SO, WHAT IS “REAL?” We live in a state of naïve realism most of the time • You don’t think what a table is made of (materials, atoms) / it’s a table. / it’s real and simplified Perspective: what is universal and what is relative in human experience? • Examples: democracy, should women get an education?
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course COMMUNICAT 313 taught by Professor Herk during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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commresearch - Communication Research January 24, 2011 Week...

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