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Week 8-29 - The flow of genetic information Outline DNA and...

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The flow of genetic information Reading assignments: Molecular Biology of the Gene (Watson, 6th ed) chapter 2, page 22-41 chapter 6, page 101-116, 127-133 Outline DNA and RNA structure the genetic code the central dogma
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DNA is the genetic material DNA protein ? pass from generation to generation faithfully Carry out most cellular functions
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DNA consists of deoxynucleotides base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine) deoxyribose 1 2 3 4 5 phosphoric acid + deoxyribose + base = deoxynucleotide deoxyribose + base = deoxynucleoside 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’
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The DNA bases are purines and pyrimidines
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Formation of the nucleotides in DNA Condensation reactions join 2’-deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, and a base to form each deoxynucleoside monophosphate.
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The Nucleotides of DNA
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The Proposed Tetra-nucleotide Structure of DNA The tetranucleotide structure of DNA predicted equal quantities of each base.
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Chargaff’s rules (1949) DNA of different species have different nucleotide composition with the following rules: 1)The amounts of A=T and G=C 2)The amount of A+G=C+T 3)The amount of A+T did not necessarily equal the amount of G+C, but varied among different species.
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3’ to 5’ Phosphodiester Bonds Join Nucleotides in DNA (1952) Nucleotides are joined through phosphate groups to form a phosphodiester bond. The ribose and phosphates form a chain or backbone with the bases branching off.
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Rosalind Franklin and her X-ray diffraction photo of DNA (1952)
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Watson and Crick Revealed The Double Helical Structure of DNA (1953) Two DNA chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases on opposite strands.
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