153758657.pdf - Olivet Nazarene University Digital Commons Olivet Faculty Scholarship \u2013 Communication Communication 4-2012 A Comprehensive Quality

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Unformatted text preview: Olivet Nazarene University Digital Commons @ Olivet Faculty Scholarship – Communication Communication 4-2012 A Comprehensive Quality Management Model for Community Newspapers T. Swanepoel Olivet Nazarene University, [email protected] Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Business Administration, Management, and Operations Commons, and the Journalism Studies Commons Recommended Citation Swanepoel, T., "A Comprehensive Quality Management Model for Community Newspapers" (2012). Faculty Scholarship – Communication. 3. This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Communication at Digital Commons @ Olivet. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty Scholarship – Communication by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons @ Olivet. For more information, please contact [email protected] A comprehensive quality management model for community newspapers T Swanepoel BA (Communication), MA (Communication Studies) 10523367 Thesis submitted for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Communication Studies (Journalism) at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University Promoter: Prof G van der Waldt Co-promoter: Dr EF Steyn April 2012 ii ABSTRACT The quality of South African (and indeed global) journalism has been under close scrutiny for several years, resulting in criticism regarding issues such as a lack of depth, diversity and accuracy. A lack of effective and efficient media management is one factor influencing the quality of journalism in both the mainstream and community media sectors. This study focuses on traditional commercial community newspapers that represent the needs, interests and opinions of a demographically and ideologically diverse readership. These newspapers are distinctive, but remain subjected to the same journalism standards as mainstream media because of the vital role they play in creating a platform for intimate community news. Managing quality pro-actively, continuously and across organisational levels is best accomplished within a Total Quality Management framework, which requires organisation-wide commitment to and responsibility for quality. Media products such as community newspapers offer dual, complementary products of (intangible) content and (tangible) distribution, which are inseparable. Moreover, media products are subject to the cultural preferences and existing communication infrastructure of specific geographic markets. Following a systems- and process-based approach simplifies quality management in such complex organisations, because it offers consistent, predictable results and focused improvement opportunities. The systems approach also recognises the relationship between the organisation and its external environment, which is essential in media management. The main objective of this exploratory study is thus to create a comprehensive quality management model, taking the nature and characteristics of quality community newspapers and the variables that influence quality in these organisations into account. This model could be a useful tool for owners, managers and editors at community newspapers to manage and improve quality in and across all functions and production processes in their organisations. Key terms: Community journalism; community newspapers; quality of journalism; quality management; journalism standards; newspaper production process; systems theory; process management; quality management model iii OPSOMMING Die gehalte van joernalistiek in Suid-Afrika (en elders ter wêreld) is die laaste jare skerp gekritiseer weens onder meer ’n gebrek aan diepte, verskeidenheid en akkuraatheid. Ondoeltreffende mediabestuur is een van die faktore wat gehalte in die hoofstroom- en gemeenskapsmediasektor beïnvloed. Hierdie studie fokus op tradisionele, kommersiële gemeenskapskoerante wat die behoeftes, belangstellings en menings van lesers met ’n uiteenlopende demografiese en ideologiese profiel weergee. Hierdie koerante is eiesoortig, maar steeds onderworpe aan dieselfde joernalistieke standaarde as die hoofstroommedia weens hul belangrike rol as ’n forum vir intieme gemeenskapsnuus. Gehalte kan ten beste proaktief, deurlopend en oor organisatoriese vlakke heen bestuur word binne ’n raamwerk van omvattende gehaltebestuur (TQM). Hierdie benadering verg ’n organisasiewye verbintenis tot en verantwoordelikheid vir gehalte. Mediaprodukte soos gemeenskapskoerante bied ’n produk met ’n tasbare (verspreiding) en ontasbare (inhoud) dimensie wat nie van mekaar geskei kan word nie. Daarbenewens moet mediaprodukte ook ag slaan op die kulturele voorkeure en bestaande infrastruktuur van ’n spesifieke geografiese mark. ’n Stelselen prosesbenadering tot gehaltebestuur vereenvoudig die proses in ingewikkelde organisasies, omdat dit die geleentheid bied om gehalte gefokus te verbeter en deurlopend voorspelbare resultate lewer. Die stelselbenadering erken ook die verhouding tussen die organisasie en die eksterne omgewing, wat noodsaaklik is in mediabestuur. Die hoofoogmerk van hierdie ondersoekende studie is dus om ’n omvattende gehaltebestuursmodel te skep wat die aard en kenmerke van gehalte-gemeenskapskoerante en die veranderlikes wat gehalte in hierdie organisasies beïnvloed, in ag neem. Hierdie model kan ’n nuttige instrument wees wat eienaars, bestuuders en redakteurs van gemeenskapskoerante kan gebruik om gehalte in produksieprosesse oor alle funksies heen te bestuur. Sleutelterme: Gemeenskapsjoernalistiek; gemeenskapskoerante; gehalte van joernalistiek; gehaltebestuur; joernalistiekstandaarde; produksieproses; stelselteorie; prosesbestuur; gehaltebestuursmodel iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS On completion of this study, I wish to thank My heavenly Father, for unfailing grace, love and strength André, Etienne, Kristi and Lisa, for support and patience My parents, Thys and Bessie Louw, for carrying me through prayer and never giving up on me My promoters, Gerrit van der Waldt and Elanie Steyn, for guidance and support Pam Greenlee of the Benner Library at Olivet Nazarene University, who can find a needle in a haystack The owners, managers and editors at the community newspapers who participated in this study I dedicate this study to my mother, Bessie Louw, who despite ill health and unprecedented technological challenges, painstakingly transcribed hours of interviews, proofed the text and provided other research support while never failing to encourage me. v vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION AND CONTEXT 1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 The media landscape in South Africa .................................................................................. 3 1.3 The evolution of community newspapers ............................................................................ 7 1.4 The role, nature and characteristics of community newspapers ........................................... 13 1.4.1 Community newspapers: An operational definition ................................................................. 18 1.5 Quality management ........................................................................................................ 19 1.5.1 The TQM concept .................................................................................................................. 20 1.5.2 Systems and processes within quality management ................................................................... 21 1.5.3 TQM in a community newspaper context................................................................................ 21 1.6 Problem statement ........................................................................................................... 22 1.6.1 Research questions ................................................................................................................... 22 1.6.2 Research objectives................................................................................................................... 22 1.6.3 Central theoretical statements .................................................................................................. 22 1.7 The methodology and method .......................................................................................... 23 1.7.1 Qualitative research.................................................................................................................. 23 1.7.2 Validity and reliability.............................................................................................................. 25 1.7.3 Triangulation ........................................................................................................................... 25 1.7.4 Literature review ...................................................................................................................... 26 1.7.3 Empirical study ........................................................................................................................ 27 1.7.3.1 Case research....................................................................................................................................... 28 1.7.3.1.1 Research population and sample ................................................................................................. 29 1.7.3.2 Depth interviews................................................................................................................................. 30 1.8 Scientific contribution ..................................................................................................... 31 1.9 Research layout ................................................................................................................ 31 1.10 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 31 CHAPTER 2 QUALITY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 33 2.2 Paradigmatic development of the quality concept .............................................................. 34 2.3 Principle approaches to quality ......................................................................................... 34 2.3.1 Transcendent approach to quality ............................................................................................ 35 2.3.2 Product-based approach to quality ........................................................................................... 35 2.3.3 User-based approach to quality ................................................................................................ 35 2.3.4 Manufacturing-based approach to quality ................................................................................ 36 2.3.5 Value-based approach to quality .............................................................................................. 36 2.4 contributions of quality protagonists to the development of quality management theory ..... 37 2.4.1 The American theorists who took messages of quality to Japan in the early 1950s .................... 37 2.4.2 Japanese theorists of the late 1950s .......................................................................................... 39 2.4.3 “Western gurus” who followed the Japanese industrial success ................................................. 40 2.4.4 Synopsis of the most salient theoretical approaches .................................................................. 41 2.5 Towards a definition of quality ......................................................................................... 44 2.5.1 Quality dimensions: David Garvin........................................................................................... 44 2.5.2 Quality dimensions: Leonard Berry, Valarie Zeithaml and Parsu Parasuraman ......................... 45 Table of contents 2.5.3 Quality dimensions: Carol A. King .......................................................................................... 46 2.6 Conceptualising quality .................................................................................................... 47 2.7 Quality management approaches, philosophies, models and techniques .............................. 50 2.7.1 The management philosophy of Kaizen ................................................................................... 51 2.7.2 Benchmarking (quality control strategy) .................................................................................. 51 2.7.3 Cause-and-Effect diagram ........................................................................................................ 52 2.7.4 Plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle ............................................................................................. 53 2.7.5 The customer satisfaction model .............................................................................................. 53 2.8 Total quality management (TQM) .................................................................................... 54 2.9 A systems approach to quality ........................................................................................... 58 2.9.1 The community newspaper as a system .................................................................................... 63 2.9.2 A Process approach to quality .................................................................................................. 64 2.10 The significance of quality for organisational performance ............................................... 65 2.10.1 Quality management models within an organisational context ............................................... 67 2.10.2 Quality management in the media ......................................................................................... 69 2.10.3 Community newspapers as organisations ............................................................................... 70 2.11 Towards a comprehensive quality management model...................................................... 75 2.11.1 Explanation of the macro quality management model for community newspapers ................. 78 2.12 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 79 CHAPTER 3 AN ORGANISATIONAL, FUNCTIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY NEWSPAPERS 3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 81 3.2 The “hard” and “soft” dimensions of organisations ............................................................ 82 3.3 Organisational culture and behaviour ................................................................................ 83 3.3.1 Soft factors in community newspaper organisations ................................................................. 87 3.3.1.1 Quality journalism orientation ........................................................................................................... 88 3.3.1.2 Meaningful, relevant, comprehensive and engaging content............................................................... 89 3.3.1.3 Truth and accuracy ............................................................................................................................. 90 3.3.1.4 Verification, balance and fairness ........................................................................................................ 90 3.3.1.5 Independence...................................................................................................................................... 91 3.3.1.6 Ethics .................................................................................................................................................. 91 3.3.1.7 Leadership........................................................................................................................................... 92 3.3.1.8 Management styles and roles .............................................................................................................. 92 3.3.1.9 Teamwork .......................................................................................................................................... 93 3.3.1.10 Communication ............................................................................................................................... 93 3.3.1.11 Employee empowerment .................................................................................................................. 94 3.3.1.12 Diversity orientation ......................................................................................................................... 94 3.3.1.13 Customer orientation ....................................................................................................................... 95 3.4 Analysing processes in community newspaper organisations ............................................... 96 3.4.1 Documenting processes............................................................................................................ 98 3.5 Functions, input and key processes ................................................................................. 101 3.5.1 Administration/finance: The organisational support function ................................................ 102 3.5.2 The community newspaper production process...................................................................... 103 3.5.3 The operational functions: Advertising, editorial, production and circulation/distribution ..... 106 3.5.3.1 The advertising function ................................................................................................................... 106 3.5.3.1.1 Advertising planning – SP1.1 .................................................................................................... 109 3.5.3.1.2 Advertising production – SP2.1 ................................................................................................ 109 3.5.3.2 The editorial function ....................................................................................................................... 112 3.5.3.2.1 Editorial planning – SP1.2 ........................................................................................................ 114 3.5.3.2.2 Editorial production – SP2.2 .................................................................................................... 115 3.5.3.2.3 News editing (EPSP3) ............................................................................................................... 118 viii Table of contents 3.5.3.3 The production function .................................................................................................................. 119 3.5.3.3.1 Page layout – SP2.3................................................................................................................... 121 3.5.3.3.2 Platemaking – SP2.4 ................................................................................................................. 122 3.5.3.3.3 Printing and finishing – SP3.1 .................................................................................................. 122 3.5.3.4 The circulation/distribution function ............................................................................................... 122 3.5.3.4.1 Circulation/distribution management – SP1.3.......................................................................... 124 3.5.3.4.2 Packaging and distribution – SP4.1 .......................................................................................... 125 3.5 The community newspaper: An integrated system ............................................................ 125 3.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................
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