When Muawiya Umayyad became caliph, the Islamic empire expands under the Umayyads’ rule for ninety years, from 661 to 750. Since the Umayyads were very good military leaders, they captured Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and every province was appointed a governor, or emir. He also moved the capital from Medina to Damascus in Syria, his hometown. His organized system of government was based after the Byzantine government, otherwise known as a bureaucracy. Then, when Abd al Malik became caliph from 685 to 705, he set to making all of the empire be unified. Everyone had to speak Arabic and they had minted the same type of coins for the whole province for easier trade and commerce. For religious architecture, people made mosques so if one Muslim traveled from one part of the empire to another he would see the mosques and it would let him feel at home. Non-Muslims were tolerated, but they had to pay higher taxes. For the people who were Muslims their whole life, they had to pay 17% of their money, 33% for converters, and 40% for non-Muslims, such as
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