chapter 34 learning objectives

chapter 34 learning objectives - Learning Objectives...

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Learning Objectives Chapter 34: Vertebrates Concept 34.1: Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve chord Describe the four derived traits that define the phylum Chordata o Notochord longitudinal, flexible rod located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord o Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord Nerve cord of a chordate embryo that develops from a plate of ectoderm Then rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord o Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts Pharyngeal Clefts- One of the grooves that separate a series of pouches along the sides of the pharynx May develop into a Pharyngeal Slit Pharyngeal Slits- One of the slits that form from the pharyngeal clefts and communicate to the outside Later develops into gills slits o Muscular, Post-Anal Tail Contains skeletal elements and muscles and helps propel many aquatic species in the water Distinguish among the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each o Cephalochordata Persistent notochord in the adult Large sac-like pharynx with gill slits for food collection and respiration Ex. Lancelets o Urochordata Chordate features (Ex. notochord and nerve chord) are only found in the larva Generally lost in the adult Adult secretes a tough cellulose sac in which the animal is embedded Ex. Tunicates o Craniata Possess a brain enclosed in a skull, ears, kidneys and other organs
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Well-formed bony or cartilaginous vertebral column or backbone enclosing the spinal cord Explain the significance of the tunicate larva in hypotheses of chordate evolution o A larval tunicate is completely different than an adult tunicate o As it develops, a tunicate loses most of its chordate characteristics and its organs move around as it changes Concept 34.2: Craniates are chordates that have a head List the derived characteristics of the craniates. o Two clusters of Hox genes Lancelets and tunicates have only one o Neural crest- A collection of cells that appears near the dorsal margins of the closing neural tube in an embryo Disperse through the body and give rise to a variety of structures Teeth, some bones and cartilage of the skull, the inner layer of skin of the facial region, several types of neurons, and the sensory
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