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Biology Study Guide - Biology 9H 1st Semester Final Exam...

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Biology 9H: 1 st Semester Final Exam Study Guide (Answers) Chapter 1 1. Hypothesis is an educated assumption or a testable prediction of what might happen or what is expected to happen. Theory is a well-established principle, based on many observations and investigations, used to explain natural phenomenon. 2. To measure using a graduated cylinder, one should always put the cylinder on a flat surface, read on the level of the meniscus (not below or above the meniscus), and subtract the amount of water the cylinder had alone from the amount of water the cylinder had with the object (the volume of which is being measured). To measure using a metric ruler, one should always remember that the standard metric ruler is 1 meter in length, the distance between two long lines (where numbers are written) is 1 centimeter in length, the distance between two small lines is 1 millimeter in length. 3. An experiment should always have a testable hypothesis, an experimental group, a control group, a constant, an independent variable, and a dependent variable. 4. Experimental control is the group in an experiment that is not exposed to any factors that is being tested on, so that it can be compared to the experimental group (which has been exposed to the experimented factor) to see what are the differences between them. 5. A hypothesis is tested during the conclusion of the experiment, when the experimental group and the control group are compared, considering the hypothesis to be correct or incorrect. 6. Two groups: control group (kept unchanged) and experimental group (is tested or factors are changed), two variables: independent variable (the factor that is changed) and dependent variable (the factor that changes due to the independent variable), a constant: the thing that is not changed or tested on; both the control group and the experimental group should receive the same facilities except for the tested factor. Vocab. :- Control group – The group in an experiment that is not receiving the factor being tested. Experimental group – The group in an experiment that is receiving the factor being tested. Theory – Explanation of a natural phenomenon based on observation and investigations over time. Dependent variable – The factor that is being measured in an experiment; its value changes because of changes to the independent variable (Y-axis). Independent variable – The factor that can be changed in an experiment; it is the factor tested and affects the experiment outcome (X-axis). Chapter 6 1. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur, making the reaction to occur faster the usual.
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