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BSCI410 HW 4 - My-Linh Tran BSCI 410-Liu/Chang...

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My-Linh Tran BSCI 410-Liu /Chang Homework #4 (50 pts) Fall 2011 Due: Tuesday (Dec. 6) at 11:00 AM at the beginning of class Please provide your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Give the names of the C. elegans genes whose products are (6 pts) a) required to execute programmed cell death (PCD) if ced-9 is switched off then the ced-4 and ced-3 are switched on and cell death is executed. b) required to commit to programmed cell death when ced-9 is on it inhibits ced-4 and ced-3 and will cause the cell to live, when the cells are destined to die then ced-9 is switched off, egl-1 inhibits the occurrence of ced-9 can also cause commitment to programmed cell death c) required to clean up dead cells- ced-1 and ced-2 are involved in cleaning up the dead cells 2. Give two examples illustrating the functions of programmed cell death in mammalian embryo development and health maintenance. (4 pts) C. elegans plays an important role in the discovery of programmed cell death genes . It is important in development, in which TUNEL assay could be used to detect the apoptosis patterns in developing embryos. Certain cells must die during development, the blue dots will appear on the apoptosis patterns in the TUNEL assay detection showing the cells that have died and stained. Apoptosis functions can lead to sculpting body structures such as the number of digits on a hand, it can help in cancer research to control cell proliferation. From the study researchers are attempting to identify genes that control apoptosis, and though nematodes and humans separated by years of evolution, some of their apoptosis controlling genes are functionally interchangeable. 3. Give two differences and one similarity between siRNA and miRNA. (3 pts) siRNA is a foreign invading agent, it comes from the outside through a transgene or virus genome, and is chopped up by DICER and loaded to a RISC complex in which it can cleave mRNA. miRNA is part of our genes that encodes mRNA and is involved in regulating and development, it can be translated into a precursor like a hairpin structure. miRNA is not foreign, the hairpin is processed by the DICER and chops up the RNA and it guides the RISC complex to either translate mRNA or degrade corresponding mRNA, in all down-regulating the gene activity.
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