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Lecture15(draft)-Model Organisms_Arabidopsis

Lecture15(draft)-Model Organisms_Arabidopsis - Lecture 15...

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1 Objectives : Know the ways in which Arabidopsis is valuable as a model organism. Know the basic tools that are available for Arabidopsis genetics. Know examples of questions that have been addressed using Arabidopsis. Exam #3 is one week from today, on TUESDAY, NOV 15 Homework #3 answer key will be posted on Blackboard tomorrow A review sheet for Exam #3 will be posted tomorrow To supplement the lectures, I have posted some relevant reading material on Blackboard under Course Materials Audio recordings of some of the lectures (#12-15) are posted on Blackboard My office hours this Friday have been changed to 3–4 pm Additional special office hours on Monday 3-5 pm Lecture 15 – Model Organisms_Arabidopsis Tuesday Nov 8, 2011
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The five major eukaryotic model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arabidopsis thaliana Caenorhabditis elegans Drosophila melanogaster Mus musculus 2
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3 Review Questions from last lecture 1. Why are model organisms valuable for molecular genetics? 2. Would you expect cell cycle genes to be discovered more easily in Saccharomyces cerevisiae than in, say, human cells? Why? 3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages as a model organism. Does it have any limitations? 4. What are some possible drawbacks of only studying model organisms?
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4 Lecture outline Why study plants? How and why did Arabidopsis become a model organism for plants? -Features of the plant -Genetic tools (genetic maps, genome sequence, reverse genetics, etc) Comparative genomics Specific example: Unlocking the secrets of flower development
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Why study plants? Plants provide oxygen, food, fiber, biofuel, minerals, and medicines Basic plant research has been identified as being increasingly essential for a variety of major societal challenges: - Food : meeting the global demand for food and nutrients - Energy : providing renewable energy - Environment : improving the environment - Health : producing new medicines Thus, having a good model system for plants is essential 5
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6 Review of what makes a good model organism Inherent features of a model organism Easy to grow in the laboratory Relatively rapid life cycle Lots of offspring Genetic crosses can be carried out Mutations can be induced easily Homozygous true-breeding lines can be established Small genome Easy to transform DNA can be isolated and genes can be cloned MOLECULAR GENETIC TOOLS (mutants, genetic maps, ESTs, genome sequence, databases, microarrrays, reverse genetic resources) Societal factors: Research funding, research community, scientist personalities
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Arabidopsis thaliana A small flowering plant (common name “mouse ear cress“) A member of the mustard family ( Brassicaceae ), which includes
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