Lab Report 1 - INTRODUCTION: When one thinks of genetics,...

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INTRODUCTION: When one thinks of genetics, usually the first subject matter that comes to mind would be Gregor Mendel. Mendel has been named the “Father of Genetics” for his experiment with pea plants that gave us the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment. This son of a farmer learned at an early age how to tend fruit trees. From 1857 to 1863, Mendel crossed and documented traits in 24,034 plants, through many generations. Mendel then published a paper explaining the reappearance of traits in the third generation, but few actually read the report. Shortly after Mendel’s paper was published in English three botanists rediscovered the laws of inheritance (O’Neil 2011). They credited Mendel for the information, and this is how he became regarded as the “Father of Genetics.” During Mendel’s first experiment included crossing short and tall pea plants. Mendel noticed that when short plants were crossed with short plants they always produced short plants. Mendel called this “true-breeding” (Lewis 2012). The crosses between two tall plants on the other hand were a little bit more confusing. He noticed that the cross yielded a short plan in about one-quarter of the generation. Through this encounter Mendel discovered that some genes mask other genes. The trait that masks another he referred to as dominant, while the masked trait is called recessive. While recognizing that hybrids hide on trait, he tried to explain how this happens. His explanation became known as the Law of Segregation. The Law of Segregation can be defined as members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair. There are four main concepts. A gene can exist in more than one form. This means that a gene can either be dominant for recessive. Organisms inherit two alleles for each train, one from the mother and one from the father. When gametes are produced, allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. This means that sex cells only contain half of the genes.
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Woodfin When the gametes join during fertilization the resulting offspring contain two sets of alleles, one from each parent (Bailey). When the two alleles of a pair are heterozygous, then one is dominant while the other is recessive. This means that one trait is shown in the phenotype while one is hidden. An example to show how these four concepts are true can be explained by seed color in pea plants. There is one allele for a yellow seed (Y) and one allele for a green seed (y). In this example the dominant allele is yellow seed, while the green seed color is recessive. When both are paired together, heterozygous, the color of the seed would be yellow because the yellow dominant allele will mask the green recessive allele. Seeds with the genetic make-up of (YY) or (Yy) are yellow, while seeds that are (yy) are green.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course BMS 110 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at Missouri State University-Springfield.

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Lab Report 1 - INTRODUCTION: When one thinks of genetics,...

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