Lab #10 - Microwaves Template

# Lab #10 - Microwaves Template - Lab 9 Microwaves Performed...

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Lab 9: Microwaves Performed On: 10/28/11 Due On: 11/18/11 Names: Andy Gutting Hamdi Mani Heather Singleton Contributions: See Appendix A

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Abstract: The properties of electromagnetic waves have been studied using microwave signals of frequency 10.5 GHz. It was found out that the intensity of received signals is a function of distance: goes as 1/r^1.6 and as a function of the relative angle between the transmitter and receiver: exponential decay. It was also found out that the introduction of polarization filter between a transmitter and receiver, whose polarization planes are orthogonal, created a transmission pattern obeying Malus’ law. The ‘standing waves’ concept was explored and used to measure the wavelength of the signal which was found to be 3cm +/- 0.2cm and the velocity of propagation of 3.15 1E8 m/s .The law of specular reflection was verified experimentally by observing that angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. Introduction: This lab investigates microwaves and some of their basic properties. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves that can have a wavelength between 1 mm and 1 meter and a frequency between 0.3GHz and 300GHz. In this experiment, the frequency used was 10.5GHz and the wavelength was calculated using: The first experiment investigated what happened when the transmitted waves were linearly polarized. Graphing the data given in the experiment gave a function that fit the equation: In the second part of the experiment, spatial dependence was tested while the transmitter and receiver were moved apart. Page 2
Procedure: The set up for this experiment consisted of a transmitter, receiver and occasionally a polarizer. In the first experiment, the horns were facing one another and one horn, the transmitter in this case, was rotated about its horizontal axis in 10º increments and data from the receiver was recorded. The second experiment was different because the horns were merely separated spatially (although both oriented vertically) and then slowly moved further and further apart. Data was taken from the receiver every 10 cm and recorded into excel. The next part of the lab involved rotating the receiver around the transmitter on the horizontal plane every 10º and recording the data from the receiver. The transmitter was placed at the center of rotation so as to avoid more complex geometrical relationships. The last few parts of the lab included a metal plate as a polarizer. Figure 1 has a polarizer with slits in it. The two horns were then both rotated in the same direction every 10º from 0º to 90º. Figure 2 has a reflector without slits. The transmitter and receiver were rotated along the horizontal plane and the receiver detected the waves that bounced off the metal plate. The last experiment involved a probe in place of the receiver. The probe was mounted

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Lab #10 - Microwaves Template - Lab 9 Microwaves Performed...

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