History_and_Approaches_1

History_and_Approaches_1 - Waiting in line at the theater,...

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Unformatted text preview: Waiting in line at the theater, Ray put his Waiting in line at the theater, Ray put his arms around Kira and playfully kissed her cheek. “Remember that party where we met last year?” he asked. “You caught my eye the moment you walked into the room.” “Sure” Kira laughed, “but you were so shy. Your friends practically had to drag you over to talk to me! You’re lucky I’m so outgoing” Ray knew he was shy, especially around women, Ray knew he was shy, especially around women, yet he wasn’t sure why. He had been too nervous to enjoy the few dates he had gone on in high school. During his first semester at college, he met a few women he really liked but was afraid to ask them out. He didn’t make many guy friends either, and by winter the loneliness was getting to him. He became mildly depressed, he couldn't sleep well, and his school work suffered. After a good visit with his family during spring After a good visit with his family during spring break, Ray turned things around. He studied hard, did well on his tests, and made friends with some guys in the dorm. His mood improved, and toward the end of the semester he met Kira. Attracted to Ray and sensing both his shyness and his interest, Kira asked Ray out. Now dating Kira for a year and doing well in school, Ray is happy and self confident. He and Kira have even talked about getting married after they graduate… The Nature of Psychology The Why are you shy or outgoing? What causes people, like Kira and Ray, to become attracted to one another and falling love? Can you predict which relationships will lasts? Why do remember a first date from a long time ago yet forget the information you learned last June? WELCOME TO WELCOME TO PSYCHOLOGY… Definition of Psychology Definition Scientific study of behavior and mental processes in humans and animals. Goals: • • • • Description Explanation Prediction Control Definition of Psychology Definition The scientific study of behavior and the mind “Scientific” • • • • T R U E What is Psychology? What The science of behavior and the mind • behavior ­ observable actions of a person or animal • mind ­ thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences What is Psychology? (Cont’d) What • Science an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts / data and well described methods Testable Reliable Unusual Experiment Behavior • refers to those activities of an organism which can be directly observed or recorded • May take form in highly specific glandular or muscular movement Knee jerk­ molecular behavior • Integrated and meaningful patterns of complex behavior Avoiding high places Mental Processes Mental Refer to cognitive operations which can be directly known only by the experiencing person • Thinking, perceiving dreaming Cannot be directly observed and measured by others or instruments* Research vs. Applied Research Psychologists Research Psychologist • Study the origins, causes and results of certain behaviors Applied Psychologists • Make direct use of findings of research psychologist • Deal directly with clients* Foundations of Modern Psychology Psychology Charles Darwin (1809­1882) Theory of natural selection (1859) • physical characteristics evolve through natural selection • behavioral patterns also influence selection • inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on Human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science Foundations of Modern Psychology Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1832­1920) ­ wrote the first psychology textbook “Father of Psychology” because started the 1st lab for studying humans. • Measured by gathering descriptions of sensations from objects they touched • Found the human mind to be too complex to be broken down • Applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind • Structuralism ­ identify ‘atoms’ of the mind focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times Other Pioneers Other William James (1842­1910) • • • started psychology at Harvard in 1870s opposed Wundt’s approach functionalism ­ influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) • Austrian physician that focused on illness • psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Other Pioneers Other Alfred Binet (1857­1911) • French intelligence researcher • developed first intelligence test Ivan Pavlov (1849­1936) • Russian physiologist • discovered conditioned reflexes B.F. Skinner (1904­1990) • • • American psychologist at Harvard studied learning and effect of reinforcement behaviorism Not Mentioned Last time… Not Tichener­ Structuralism Calkins­ Functionalism Washburn C. New Directions Evolutionary psychology? • Adaptive value of behaviors and mental process Positive psychology • Focusing on attitude Multiple perspectives • No single right answer. Where are the women? • Important contributions despite discrimination 3. Human Diversity 3. A. Gender • Psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female Gender stereotypes • Limited view of people based on gender For example, “Only men can be police officers” Feminist psychology • Study of the psychology of women Sexual orientation • Gender to which one is sexually attracted B. Race and Ethnicity • Racial and ethnic minorities in psychology Race is subpopulation defined by identifiable characteristic Ethnicity common cultural heritage; religion, language, ancestry C. Culture • Tangible goods and values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed on from generation to generation Areas of Specialization Areas Clinical • abnormal behavior and psychological disorders • psychologist vs. psychiatrist Health psychology • psychological factors in physical health Counseling • dealing with normal life situations • provide guidance Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Biological and Personality 8% Experimental 16% Educational 3% Other Developmental 6% Psychology 15% School 3% Clinical 36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization Areas Developmental • psychological change over the life span • social, cognitive, personality School • counseling and guidance in school settings Educational • learning and teaching Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Biological and Personality 8% Experimental 16% Educational 3% Other Developmental 6% Psychology 15% School 3% Clinical 36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization Areas Psychobiology • • • Experimental • • • brain and behavior studied at many levels often uses animals as research model basic laboratory focus animals or humans learning, memory, motivation Cognitive Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Biological and Personality 8% Experimental 16% Educational 3% Other Developmental 6% Psychology 15% School 3% • experimental • human memory, perception, etc. Clinical 36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization Areas Social • social influences on cognition and emotion • attitudes and beliefs Personality • • individual differences perception by others Industrial/organization al • • • people and work job satisfaction training and selection Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Biological and Personality 8% Experimental 16% Educational 3% Other Developmental 6% Psychology 15% School 3% Clinical 36% Counseling 10% Professional Work Settings Professional Colleges and Employment Settings of Psychologists universities Clinical settings Business & Industry Elementary and Private School Practice secondary schools Business Universities & College Government Government What is Psychology? What A set of questions about mental functioning • trace back to philosophy • Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions • the scientific method • evolved over centuries, first in physics A product of history • philosophy asked many of the basic questions • physiology used similar methods Philosophical Developments Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? „ Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated ƒ origins in medieval religion ƒ soul is seat of intellectual function and will ƒ mind is product of the soul ‚ mind not subject to scientific inquiry ƒ to challenge this was punishable by death Philosophical Developments Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? „ Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - modified dualism ƒ since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul ƒ the body can therefore control much behavior ‚ led him to study reflexes ƒ the soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute Philosophical Developments Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? „ Materialism: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) ƒ mind is a product of the brain ƒ soul is not involved in human behavior „ Empiricism: John Locke, Aristotle ƒ knowledge and intellect are acquired ƒ All knowledge is gained through the senses, directly from experience Philosophical Developments Philosophical Another Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism „ Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate „ If knowledge is innate ƒ What is the purpose of education? ƒ Can intellect be changed by experience? „ Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? „ This is known as Nature vs. Nurture ƒ appears throughout modern psychology Present Day Psychology Present 7 Approaches to the nature of the human being • Each theory somewhat contradicts each other • Most Psychologists tend to lean toward 1 of the 7 approaches, but often borrow ideas from other theories => Eclecticism Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena 1. Neurobiological- Biological 1. Viewing behavior as the result of nervous system functions and biology • hereditary • Biochemical processes Neuroscience, genetics, biochemistry­ hormones Neurobiological analysis Neurobiological Chemicals aid in the storage of information. Memory is stored better when the learner has a much higher excitement, anger, fear or hope. 2. Behavioral 2. Sees behavior as the product of learning and associations • environment and stimulus conditions Argues that psychology is a science that deals with attempts to understand and control observable behavior • Behavioral modification Behaviorism (cont’d) Behaviorism Watson – Consciousness is too subjective and not verifiable B.F Skinner­ disliked Philosophy­ focused on what could be seen. • Conditioning­ reinforcement Pavlov We are mechanically controlled by the environment Behaviorism (Cont’d) Behaviorism • Good or bad depending on environment • Does not agree with the idea of Cognition and unconscious process Made the field of Psychology less scientific. Behaviorism (Cont’d) Behaviorism Positive­ Evidence that we are influenced by rewards and punishments. Negative­ Problems with this theory • Takes away a person’s free will. • Does not take into account what is going on in your life Previous learning is not as important as the present situation 3. Humanistic Approach 3. Arose in response to the problems in behaviorism. Believes that people are basically good potentially self directed Ex. Seed Carl Rogers­ saw people as creatures with free will and choice Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs Humanism Humanism Emphasizes the complexity, subjectivity, and capacity (potential) for growth in humans. In reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, emphasizes conscious, present experience. 4. Psychoanalysis 4. Behavior can be influenced by events of which we are no longer aware • a.k.a­ “Psychodynamic Approach” Heredity and early experiences Unconscious motivation (influence of childhood events/ sexual or aggressive urges) Freud, Jung, Adler • Control our everyday behavior in ways we are not aware Psychoanalysis (Cont’d) Psychoanalysis Emphasizes the part played by thoughts and motives which are unconscious but nevertheless strongly influence behavior • Abnormal behavior and psychotherapy 5. Cognitive 5. Most popular approach Cognition­ refers to thinking or using mental processes Focus on perceiving, remembering, and thinking Studies how humans understand the world (Info processing) Cognitive (cont’d) Cognitive Most important human ability is that we can take info from the environment, analyze it and come up with a solution to almost any problem. Organize, choose, and utilize information Cognitive (cont’d) Cognitive We are different because we can change our thought patterns after looking at different problems and deciding the best approach Down plays the effects of Emotions • Piaget­ studied intellectual development • Chomsky ­ studied language 6. Sociocultural 6. Emphasizes the influence of cultural norms on behavior Studies the impact of specific social, ethnic, racial and religious groups on behavior. (Cultural Norms) Focuses on cross­ cultural patterns of attitudes and behaviors Sociocultural Sociocultural Ex: Suburban white girl v. native American boy on reservation* • They have Diff. experiences, opportunities, values, dreams, etc. • What differences are most important? • What areas of life do these differences affect? • How can you measure these effects? Sociocultural cont’d Sociocultural Ex: racial prejudice • Fairness of IQ testing for different groups Major Concern­ how to counsel people from different cultures • Education, motivation and emotion, crime, justice, family systems, etc. 7. Evolutionary/Sociobiological 7. Emphasizes the influence of natural selection and adaptive success on behavior Focuses on behavior in terms of adaptive value in a species • Darwin • E.O Wilson Review Review Definition­ 3 parts Foundations of Modern Psychology­ Key People!! Areas of Specializations 7 Approaches Activity Activity Split into 4 groups Generate a list of questions psychologists try to answer. Assigned a # 1 or 2 • 1­ How would the average person try to answer these questions? • 2­ How would psychologists try to answer these questions? What are the most important differences between the ways average people and psychologists try to answer questions? ...
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