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Unformatted text preview: Waiting in line at the theater, Ray put his Waiting in line at the theater, Ray put his arms around Kira and playfully kissed her cheek. “Remember that party where we met last year?” he asked. “You caught my eye the moment you walked into the room.” “Sure” Kira laughed, “but you were so shy. Your friends practically had to drag you over to talk to me! You’re lucky I’m so outgoing” Ray knew he was shy, especially around women, Ray knew he was shy, especially around women, yet he wasn’t sure why. He had been too nervous to enjoy the few dates he had gone on in high school. During his first semester at college, he met a few women he really liked but was afraid to ask them out. He didn’t make many guy friends either, and by winter the loneliness was getting to him. He became mildly depressed, he couldn't sleep well, and his school work suffered. After a good visit with his family during spring After a good visit with his family during spring break, Ray turned things around. He studied hard, did well on his tests, and made friends with some guys in the dorm. His mood improved, and toward the end of the semester he met Kira.
Attracted to Ray and sensing both his shyness and his interest, Kira asked Ray out. Now dating Kira for a year and doing well in school, Ray is happy and self confident. He and Kira have even talked about getting married after they graduate… The Nature of Psychology
The Why are you shy or outgoing?
What causes people, like Kira and Ray, to become attracted to one another and falling love?
Can you predict which relationships will lasts?
Why do remember a first date from a long time ago yet forget the information you learned last June? WELCOME TO
PSYCHOLOGY… Definition of Psychology
Definition Scientific study of behavior and mental processes in humans and animals.
Control Definition of Psychology
Definition The scientific study of behavior and the mind
E What is Psychology?
What The science of behavior and the mind • behavior observable actions of a person or animal
• mind thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences What is Psychology? (Cont’d)
• Science an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts / data and well described methods Testable Reliable Unusual Experiment Behavior • refers to those activities of an organism which can be directly observed or recorded
• May take form in highly specific glandular or muscular movement Knee jerk molecular behavior • Integrated and meaningful patterns of complex behavior Avoiding high places Mental Processes
Mental Refer to cognitive operations which can be directly known only by the experiencing person
• Thinking, perceiving dreaming Cannot be directly observed and measured by others or instruments* Research vs. Applied
Psychologists Research Psychologist • Study the origins, causes and results of certain behaviors Applied Psychologists • Make direct use of findings of research psychologist
• Deal directly with clients* Foundations of Modern
Psychology Charles Darwin (18091882)
Theory of natural selection (1859) • physical characteristics evolve through natural selection
• behavioral patterns also influence selection
• inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on Human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science Foundations of Modern
Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (18321920)
wrote the first psychology textbook “Father of Psychology” because started the 1st lab for studying humans.
• Measured by gathering descriptions of sensations from objects they touched
• Found the human mind to be too complex to be broken down
• Applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind
• Structuralism identify ‘atoms’ of the mind focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times Other Pioneers
Other William James (18421910)
• started psychology at Harvard in 1870s
opposed Wundt’s approach
functionalism influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment Sigmund Freud (18561939) • Austrian physician that focused on illness
• psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Other Pioneers
Other Alfred Binet (18571911) • French intelligence researcher
• developed first intelligence test Ivan Pavlov (18491936) • Russian physiologist • discovered conditioned reflexes B.F. Skinner (19041990)
• American psychologist at Harvard
studied learning and effect of reinforcement
behaviorism Not Mentioned Last time…
Not Tichener Structuralism
Washburn C. New Directions Evolutionary psychology? • Adaptive value of behaviors and mental process Positive psychology • Focusing on attitude Multiple perspectives • No single right answer. Where are the women? • Important contributions despite discrimination 3. Human Diversity
3. A. Gender • Psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female Gender stereotypes • Limited view of people based on gender For example, “Only men can be police officers” Feminist psychology • Study of the psychology of women Sexual orientation • Gender to which one is sexually attracted B. Race and Ethnicity • Racial and ethnic minorities in psychology Race is subpopulation defined by identifiable characteristic Ethnicity common cultural heritage; religion, language, ancestry C. Culture • Tangible goods and values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed on from generation to generation Areas of Specialization
Areas Clinical • abnormal behavior and psychological disorders
• psychologist vs. psychiatrist Health psychology • psychological factors in physical health Counseling • dealing with normal life situations • provide guidance Industrial/Organizational 3%
36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization
Areas Developmental • psychological change over the life span
• social, cognitive, personality
• counseling and guidance in school settings
• learning and teaching Industrial/Organizational 3%
36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization
• brain and behavior
studied at many levels
often uses animals as research model
basic laboratory focus
animals or humans
learning, memory, motivation Cognitive Industrial/Organizational 3%
School 3% • experimental • human memory, perception, etc. Clinical
36% Counseling 10% Areas of Specialization
Areas Social • social influences on cognition and emotion
• attitudes and beliefs Personality
• individual differences
perception by others Industrial/organization
• people and work
training and selection Industrial/Organizational 3%
36% Counseling 10% Professional Work Settings
Professional Colleges and Employment Settings of Psychologists
Elementary and Private
Government What is Psychology?
What A set of questions about mental functioning • trace back to philosophy
• Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions
• the scientific method
• evolved over centuries, first in physics A product of history • philosophy asked many of the basic questions
• physiology used similar methods Philosophical Developments
Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? Dualism - body and soul are separate but
origins in medieval religion
soul is seat of intellectual function and will
mind is product of the soul
mind not subject to scientific inquiry to challenge this was punishable by death Philosophical Developments
Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - modified dualism
since animals have no soul, much behavior does not
the body can therefore control much behavior
led him to study reflexes the soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human
attribute Philosophical Developments
Philosophical A Question: How are mind and body related? Materialism: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
mind is a product of the brain
soul is not involved in human behavior Empiricism: John Locke, Aristotle
knowledge and intellect are acquired
All knowledge is gained through the senses, directly from
experience Philosophical Developments
Philosophical Another Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate
If knowledge is innate
What is the purpose of education?
Can intellect be changed by experience? Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences?
This is known as Nature vs. Nurture
appears throughout modern psychology Present Day Psychology
Present 7 Approaches to the nature of the human being
• Each theory somewhat contradicts each other
• Most Psychologists tend to lean toward 1 of the 7 approaches, but often borrow ideas from other theories => Eclecticism Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena 1. Neurobiological- Biological
1. Viewing behavior as the result of nervous system functions and biology • hereditary
• Biochemical processes Neuroscience, genetics, biochemistry hormones Neurobiological analysis
Neurobiological Chemicals aid in the storage of information.
Memory is stored better when the learner has a much higher excitement, anger, fear or hope. 2. Behavioral
2. Sees behavior as the product of learning and associations
• environment and stimulus conditions Argues that psychology is a science that deals with attempts to understand and control observable behavior
• Behavioral modification Behaviorism (cont’d)
Behaviorism Watson – Consciousness is too subjective and not verifiable B.F Skinner disliked Philosophy focused on what could be seen.
• Conditioning reinforcement Pavlov
We are mechanically controlled by the environment Behaviorism (Cont’d)
• Good or bad depending on environment
• Does not agree with the idea of Cognition and unconscious process Made the field of Psychology less scientific. Behaviorism (Cont’d)
Behaviorism Positive Evidence that we are influenced by rewards and punishments.
Negative Problems with this theory • Takes away a person’s free will.
• Does not take into account what is going on in your life Previous learning is not as important as the present situation 3. Humanistic Approach
3. Arose in response to the problems in behaviorism.
Believes that people are basically good
potentially self directed
Carl Rogers saw people as creatures with free will and choice
Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs Humanism
Humanism Emphasizes the complexity, subjectivity, and capacity (potential) for growth in humans. In reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, emphasizes conscious, present experience. 4. Psychoanalysis
4. Behavior can be influenced by events of which we are no longer aware
• a.k.a “Psychodynamic Approach” Heredity and early experiences
Unconscious motivation (influence of childhood events/ sexual or aggressive urges)
Freud, Jung, Adler • Control our everyday behavior in ways we are not aware Psychoanalysis (Cont’d)
Psychoanalysis Emphasizes the part played by thoughts and motives which are unconscious but nevertheless strongly influence behavior
• Abnormal behavior and psychotherapy 5. Cognitive
5. Most popular approach
Cognition refers to thinking or using mental processes
Focus on perceiving, remembering, and thinking
Studies how humans understand the world (Info processing) Cognitive (cont’d)
Cognitive Most important human ability is that we can take info from the environment, analyze it and come up with a solution to almost any problem.
Organize, choose, and utilize information Cognitive (cont’d)
Cognitive We are different because we can change our thought patterns after looking at different problems and deciding the best approach
Down plays the effects of Emotions
• Piaget studied intellectual development
• Chomsky studied language 6. Sociocultural
6. Emphasizes the influence of cultural norms on behavior
Studies the impact of specific social, ethnic, racial and religious groups on behavior. (Cultural Norms)
Focuses on cross cultural patterns of attitudes and behaviors Sociocultural
Sociocultural Ex: Suburban white girl v. native American boy on reservation*
• They have Diff. experiences, opportunities, values, dreams, etc.
• What differences are most important?
• What areas of life do these differences affect?
• How can you measure these effects? Sociocultural cont’d
Sociocultural Ex: racial prejudice • Fairness of IQ testing for different groups Major Concern how to counsel people from different cultures • Education, motivation and emotion, crime, justice, family systems, etc. 7. Evolutionary/Sociobiological
7. Emphasizes the influence of natural selection and adaptive success on behavior
Focuses on behavior in terms of adaptive value in a species
• E.O Wilson Review
Review Definition 3 parts
Foundations of Modern Psychology Key People!!
Areas of Specializations
7 Approaches Activity
Activity Split into 4 groups
Generate a list of questions psychologists try to answer.
Assigned a # 1 or 2 • 1 How would the average person try to answer these questions?
• 2 How would psychologists try to answer these questions? What are the most important differences between the ways average people and psychologists try to answer questions? ...
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- Spring '06