blanchard_ch03

Faced with a higher price and an unchanged income

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Unformatted text preview: gs remaining the same, the price rises relative to income. Faced with a higher price and an unchanged income, people cannot afford to buy all the things they previously bought. They must decrease the quantities demanded of at least some goods and services. Normally, the good whose price has increased will be one of the goods that people buy less of. To see the substitution effect and the income effect at work, think about the effects of a change in the price of an energy bar. Several different goods are substitutes for an energy bar. For example, an energy drink could be consumed instead of an energy bar. Suppose that an energy bar initially sells for $3 and then its price falls to $1.50. People now substitute energy bars for energy drinks—the substitution effect. And with a budget that now has some slack from the lower price of an energy bar, people buy even more energy bars—the income effect. The quantity of energy bars demanded increases for these two reasons. Now suppose that an energy bar initially sells for $3 and then the price doubles to $6. People now buy fewer energy bars and more energy drinks—the substitution effect. And faced with a tighter budget, people buy even fewer energy bars—the income effect. The quantity of energy bars demanded decreases for these two reasons. Demand Curve and Demand Schedule You are now about to study one of the two most used curves in economics: the demand curve. And you are going to encounter one of the most critical distinctions: the distinction between demand and quantity demanded. The term demand refers to the entire relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded of that good. Demand is illustrated by the demand curve and the demand schedule. The term quantity demanded refers to a point on a demand curve—the quantity demanded at a particular price. 9160335_CH03_p053-080.qxd 8:56 AM Page 56 CHAPTER 3 Demand and Supply Figure 3.1 shows the demand curve for energy bars. A demand curve shows the relationship between the quantity demanded of a good and its price when al...
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