biology test 2 vocab

biology test 2 vocab - 1. Karyotype: A display of...

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1. Karyotype: A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position. a. If we break open a human cells in metaphase of mitosis, stain the chromosomes with dyes, take a pacture with a mucroscope, and arrange the in matching pairs this process is karyotyping. 2. Pedigree analysis: To analyze a pedigree, the geneticist uses Mendel’s consept of dominant and recessive alleles and his law of segregation. 3. Pedigree: A family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations. 4. Down syndrome: A human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by hart and respiratory defects and varying degrees of mental retardation. 5. Turner syndrome: Females who are lacking an X chromosi=omes are designated XO; the O indicates the absence of a second sex chromosome. They have a characteristic apperance, including short stature and often a web of skin extending between the neck and shoulders. Women with Turner’s syndrome are sterile because their sex organs do not fully mature at adolesence. The XO condition is the sole know case where having only 45 chromosomes is not fatal in humans. 6. Klinefelter syndrome: An extra X chromisome in a make, making him XXY, produces Klinefelter syndrome. Men with this disorder have make sex organs and mornal intellenges, but the testes are abnormally small, the individual is sterile, ahd he often has breast emargment and other femine body contours. Klinefelter sundrom is also fouynd in individuals with more than three sex chromosomes, such as XXYY, XXXY, or XXXXY. These abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes result rom multiple disjunction. 7. Nondisjunction: An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a parir of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase. 8. Deletion: page 186 9. Duplication: 10. Inversion: 11. Translocation: This is the third step in elongation. The P site tRNA now leaves the ribosome, and the ribosome moves the remaining tRNA, carrying the growing polypeptide, to the P site. The mRNA and tRNA moce as a unit. This movement prings into the A site the next mRNA codon to be translated, and the process can start again with step 1. 12. Carrier: An individual who is heterozygous for a recessively inherited disorder and who therefore does now show symptoms of that disorder. 13. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disease that occurs in people with two copies if a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated. 14. Achondroplasia: A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele. 15.
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biology test 2 vocab - 1. Karyotype: A display of...

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