Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Chapter 5 Vocabulary - Chapter 5 Vocabulary 1. Integument:...

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1. Integument: The skin of the body, consisting of dermis and epidermis. 2. Integumentary system: The skin and all of its related components, such as nails, hairs, hooves, and horns. 3. Keratin: A tough, waterproof protein that makes up scales, the outer sheaths of beaks and claws, and feathers; a main component of the epidermis, nails, hair, horns, and hooves. 4. Keratinization: The normal formation of keratin (a tough, waterproof protein) inside epithelial cells of the skin. As the epithelial cells mature, they fill with granules filled with keratin. 5. Vitamin D: A fat-soluble vitamin essential for life in most organisms. Vitamin D may be found in many common food sources, as well as produced in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet rays in sunlight. An insufficient amount of vitamin D can cause rickets or osteomalacia. 6. Epidermis: Compose of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, it is the outermost layer of the skin. 7. Dermis: The deep, connective tissue portion of the skin that contains blood vessels, glands, and hair follicles. 8. Hypodermis: The layer of adipose tissue located beneath the epidermis and dermis that insulates and protects the body. 9. Subcutaneous layer: The layer of adipose tissue located beneath the epidermis and dermis that insulates and protects the body. 10. Keratinocytes: Cells that synthesize keratin. They have three distinct stages visible in the epidermis: the basal, prickle, and granular cell stages. As keratinocytes travel progressively away from the basement membrane toward the superficial epithelium, they lose their organelles to make way for more keratin. As a result of this process, the cells die by the time they reach the surface. 11. Melanocytes: Cells located within the lower epidermis that process tyrosinase and melanin. Melanin, contained within melanosomes, is transferred to keratinocytes by way of the melancoyte’s long projections. 12. Melanin: that sulfurous pigment produced by melanocytes, especially when stimulated by sunlight. Melanin is present in the skin, hair, choroid of the eye, and abnormally in melanomas. 13. Melanosomes: Granules filled with melanin that are transferred from the melanocytes to the keratinocytes. 14. Langerhans cell: The macrophages of the epidermis that phagocytize invading microorganisms and produce antigens. 15. Merkel cells: Throught to aid in the sensory function, these cells are located in small numbers within the epidermal-dermal junction. 16. Merkel disk: the junction formed by Merkle’s cells and sensory nerves. 17. Stratum germinativum: The base layer of the epidermis, composed of a single layer of cuboidal cells that divide to replenish the constantly eroding superficial layer of the epidermal. 18. Stratum basale:
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Chapter 5 Vocabulary - Chapter 5 Vocabulary 1. Integument:...

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