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Chapter 6 "test yourself"

Chapter 6 "test yourself" - Chapter 6...

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Chapter 6 “Test Yourself” 1. Besides supporting other tissues of the body, what else do bones do? -Support: everything is attached to or hangs from bone. -Protects: partially or completely surround many organs such as the brain or eye. -Leverage: muscles are attached to bone which allows them to move the joints. -Storage: source for deposit or withdrawal of calcium to meet the bodies needs. -Blood cell formation: some bones serve as sites for blood cell formation in the marrow that fills their interiors. 2. What are the three kinds of bone cells? 1. Osteloblasts 2. Osteocytes 3. Osteoclasts 3. What role does each kind of bone cell play in the life of a bone? -Osteoblasts: Osteoblasts confined to lacunae are called osteocytes. Cells that form bone. They secrete the matrix of bone and then supply minderals necessary to harden it. -Osteocytes: Cells that have been trapped on the ossified matrix. They are alreays ready to revert to their former lives as osteoblasts and form new bone if an injury makes that necessary. -Osteoclasts: Fuction to breakdown bone for remodeling and for release of calcium to the rest of the body. Cells that are like the “evil twins” of osteoblasts; instead of forming bone they eat it away. 4. What is the matrix of a bone made of? The matrix os made of collagen fibers embedded in a gelatin-like ground substance made of protein and complex carbohydrates. 5. What makes the matrix of a bone so hard? The matrix goes through ossifaction which infiltrates the matrix with calcium and phosphate to make the bone hard. 6. What are the main differences between the structures of cancellous bone and compact bone? Cancellous bones or spongy bones - Tiny spicules of bomes that have many spaces between them - This bone is strong but light weight - In live bone the spaces are filled with marrow. - Spicules and spaces give this bone its spongy appearance Compact bone - Very dense, heavy, and strong
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- Makes up the shaft of long bones and the outside layer of all bones - It is composed of tiny, compact cylinders of bones called haversian systems - Haversian system runs lengthwise with the bone and consists of a laminated cylinder composed of concentric layers of ossified bone matrix arranged around a central haversian canal - The canal contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves - Osteocytes are located at the junction between layers of bone that make up each system 7. Why does the body need cancellous bone and compact bone?
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