Chapter 16: The Urinary System
What are the 6 structures that make up the urinary system?
Two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra
Nitrogenous waste materials from protein breakdown are eliminated from the body
primarily as ___.
Name one hormone whose release is regulated by the kidney, one hormone that directly
affects kidney function, and one hormone produced by the kidney.
The release of antidiuretic hormone is regulated by the kidneys, aldosterone directly affects
kidney function, and erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys.
What is the difference between the hilus of the kidney and the renal pelvis?
The hilus is the area on the medial side of each kidney where blood and lymph vessels, nerves,
and the ureter enter and leave the kidney. The renal pelvis is inside the hilus and is a urine
collection chamber at the beginning of the ureter.
What is meant by the term
Retroperitoneal means outside of the abdominal cavity, between the parietal peritoneum and
the dorsal abdominal muscles.
List, in order, the parts of the nephron. Indicate if a specific part is found in the cortex
or the medulla of the kidney.
(1) renal corpuscle (cortex)
(2) proximal convoluted tubule (cortex)
(3) loop of Henle (medulla and cortex)
(4) distal convoluted tubule (cortex)
What is the difference between glomerular filtrate and tubular filtrate?
Glomerular filtrate is the fluid that leaves the glomerular capillaries and enters the capsular
space. It is similar to plasma, but without proteins. It contains waste products that need to be
cleared from the body, as well as important substances that the body needs, such as sodium,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, glucose, amino acids, chloride, bicarbonate, and water.
Glomerular filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule and is termed tubular filtrate, which
travels through the tubular part of the nephron. The important substances are reabsorbed from
the tubular filtrate back into the body along with some urea. The body eliminates some waste
products by secreting them into the tubular filtrate. Examples include hydrogen, potassium,
ammonia, and some drugs.