Chapter 19 "Test Yourself"

Chapter 19 "Test Yourself" - Chapter 19...

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Chapter 19 “Test Yourself” 1. What structures are derivatives of a bird’s skin and what are they made of? - Glands - Beaks: tough horny epidermal covering that continually grows - Claws: posses a horny sheath derived from specialized scales at the end of each toe. Claws grow continuously. - Feathers: made of protein and one they are completely they are non-living. 2. Define the functions of the uropygial gland. Do all birds possess this gland? - Also called the preen gland which is located in the dorsal surface at upper base of tail. The act of preening stimulates this gland to secrete an oily, fatty substance that is used to clean and waterproof their feathers. The gland is largest in aquatic species such as waterfowl. But it is absent in ostriches, some parrots, and a few other species. 3. Describe the basic anatomy of a bird’s beak and claws. When trimming these structures, what should be careful to avoid? - Beak: Composed of an upper and lower mandible. Different birds use it for different functions that allow them to differ in size, flexibility, and hardness depending on the function. - Claw: They possess a horny sheath derived from specialized scales at the end of each toe. Birds of prey have claws called talons that are long, sharp, and rounded to catch and kill their prey. - Don’t trim too deep because both have blood and nerve supply. 4. List three major functions of feathers. - Flight - Protection - Thermoregulation - Camouflage - Communication 5. What type of feathers are the flight and tail feathers? Describe their microstructure. - Contour feathers - Remiges are wing feather and retrices are tail feathers. - There is a tiny opening at the base of the weather where it inserts into the skin and growing feathers receive nourishment, which is called the inferior umbilicus. - There is another tiny opening on the feather shaft where the webbed part of the feather begins, it gibes rise to an after feather in some species and is called the superior umbilicus. - The round, hollow, semitransparent portion if a feather that extends from the inferior umbilicus to the superior umbilicus is called the calamus or quill. - The main feather shaft is called the rachis. - A vane is the flattened part of the feather that appears web like on each side of the rachis. A vane has numerous closely spaced, slender barbs. Barbs give rise to barbules, which have rolled edges and tiny hooklets, and the hooklets interlock barbs to form a tight web. 6. Define a fault bar. What causes it?
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- A fault bar is characterized by a weakened area on the feather have where barbs lack barbules. - Fault bars are caused by stress during the growth phase when there is an interruption of its blood flow and can have an effect even if just for a few hours. The most cause is poor diet. This can have a severe effect on the plumage of nestling birds, because all their flight feathers frown in at the same time. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course NRM 2406 taught by Professor Dabbert during the Spring '12 term at Texas Tech.

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Chapter 19 "Test Yourself" - Chapter 19...

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