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Lungs-Vent - Sternal origin of diaphragm Anterior branch of...

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Unformatted text preview: Sternal origin of diaphragm Anterior branch of left phrenic nerve Anterior branch of right phrenic nerve Costal origin 0f diaphragm Right inferior phrenic artery Central tendon of diaphragm Esophageal hiatus Vena caval foramen Fibers from right crus passing Right crus of diaphragm to left of esophageal hiatus Greater thoracic s lanchnic nerve . . . p Left Inferior phrenic artery Recurrent branch to esophagus Anterior branch Lateral branch Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve Azygos vein Least thoracic . Left superior splanchnic nerve suprarenal artery Costal origin Left phrenic nerve of diaphragm Hemiazygos vein Left crus of diaph ragm \r. Transversus abdom i n i 5 muscle Vertebrocostal (lumbocostal) trigone 12th rib Lateral arcuate ligament Medial arcuate ligament I (lateral lumbocostal arch) Quadratus A . . - lumborum muscle . ‘" ' I ,t V ‘ , . ; ' , . z _ , (medial lumbocostal arch) E P5035 major muscle Transverse process of L1 vertebra Sympathetic trunk Median arcuate Ii ament . 8 if #57 Celiac trunk Abdominal aorta © Novarlis C3 C4 Ventral rami C5 C3 llII Ventral rami C4 C5 Anterior scalene muscle Anterior scalene muscle Brachial plexus Right common carotid artery Left phrenic nerve Brachial plexus Left subclavian artery Right phrenic nerve Left vagus nerve (X) Right subclavian artery Left common carotid artery Left internal thoracic artery (cut) Right vagus nerve (X) Right internal thoracic artery (cut) Thoracic cardiac nerves Brachiocephalic trunk Left pericardiaco- Right pericardiaco- ‘ phrenic artery (cut) phrenic artery (cut) Left recurrent Superior vena cava | g l aryn ea nerve Root of right lung Root of left lung Pericardial branch Mediastinal pleura of phrenic nerve Mediastinal pleura Diaphragmatic pleu ra (cut) Phrenicoabdominal branches of phrenic nerves to inferior a surface of diaphragm Muscles of inspiration Muscles of expiration Accessory , Stern-ocleidomastnid (elevates sternum) ‘ < Scalenes Anterior ‘ i ; - Middle Posterior ‘ , g ‘ ‘ -> f, (elevate and fix ; . ‘ i J ._ - upper ribs) "114$, ‘ , s ~.‘ 7‘ ’ . ‘ j? e. m I :x‘ © Novanis Junk: (Squat-tad) notch 393 Stemum curve: LThVuIdfichudkde'uMMfiedam-ou ZMMHWd’flfl-dhwmfiflfiunmthfl manuumrmmm 3.?whnduuh—(fl'ncnndufiuhehududfimflflguh mauummumumb—uduumuuw mum 4. hfidmflflfiflumhhhMfl fibuhidndthcflmhdntuh-d-Muiudfl “diamfichlkhhtnIHWmC-mmuflu ”mt-sewixhhmuhfiu‘ m Bones of the pectoral girdle (a) Articulated pectoral girdle Posterior Sternal (medial) end Acromial (lateral) end Anterior (b) Right clavicle, superior view Acromial end Anterior Sternal end Posterior (Q m “do, hferior View “mm «mac :c Lateral views Right lung Left lung - ATE 1.11%." . ’j ; pper lobe Upper lobe ' ‘Apical (51) Apico- _ 2 posterior SuPerior Posterior(S ) (5H2) division - 3 (culmen) Anterior (5 ) Anterior (S3) Superior (54) } Lingular . 5 division Lateral (s4) Inferlor (S ) Lower lobe s ' s6 erlobe uperI0r( l Antero- uperior (Sb) medial 7+8 nterior basal (S ) basal (58) Lateral ml basal (59) M; c mu nslnv C3 C4 Ventral rami C5 C3 llII Ventral rami C4 C5 Anterior scalene muscle Anterior scalene muscle Brachial plexus Right common carotid artery Left phrenic nerve Brachial plexus Left subclavian artery Right phrenic nerve Left vagus nerve (X) Right subclavian artery Left common carotid artery Left internal thoracic artery (cut) Right vagus nerve (X) Right internal thoracic artery (cut) Thoracic cardiac nerves Brachiocephalic trunk Left pericardiaco- Right pericardiaco- ‘ phrenic artery (cut) phrenic artery (cut) Left recurrent Superior vena cava | g l aryn ea nerve Root of right lung Root of left lung Pericardial branch Mediastinal pleura of phrenic nerve Mediastinal pleura Diaphragmatic pleu ra (cut) Phrenicoabdominal branches of phrenic nerves to inferior a surface of diaphragm m 2515:: m Wu of the (radical wall, page 845 Posterior Pseudosllmiill‘im ciliated columnar , epithelium Esophagus Trachealis muscle Seromucous glands in submucosa Hyaline cartilage ring Mucous membrane . . Hyaline cartilage Submucosa Adventitia Anterior (3) Copyright © Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Thyroid cartilage Connective tissue sheath s, Cartilage ring CrIcothyrord ligament Elastic fibers Gland Small artery Cricoid cartilage Lymph vessels Connective tissue Nerve sheath (cut away) Epithelium Annular (intercartilaginous) ligaments Tracheal cartilages Cross section through trachea Mucosa of posterior tracheal wall shows longitudinal folds formed by dense collections of elastic fibers Upper lobe (eparterlal) Nerve Trachealis muscle , bronchus Small arteries Esophageal muscle Gland Epithelium Elastic fibers Lymph vessels Upper lobe bronchus Su er'o d' " b h p I r lVISIOn for“: US TO upper lobe Lingular bronchus Middle lobe bronchus Right and left main (primary) bronchi Lower lobe Lower lobe bronchus bronchus Intrapulmonary Extrapulmonary lmrapulmonary 7;; 5 _ Smooth muscle gig); 0 5 Terminal . / nEDg bronchiole Elastic fibers “3‘ 5““ C“ E U) _____ Alveolus E g _____ g E Cartilages -° .9 E: ‘5 g 3 1st order Respiratory ED gas bronchioles 3 L” 2nd order (alveoli Q S appear at 3 '8 3rd order this level) '- G) N ‘1 2 _ E ________ a: E g A E E f ,g Cartilages Alveolar ducts E '2 become sparser Q) E C (mostly at Alveolar sac ED 30 polnts of g 2 branching) _Q w-1 a 8 _ .1: TV 1‘; E V _ Adams. ‘ ; (part - of lung __________ «W supplied by No further terminal cartilages bronchlole) m 2 _______ .2 l -= . 3 Terminal '2 'bronth'lo'le an Respiratory bronchioles (3—8 orders) _________ {'3 ‘ ~ ‘ Acinus Alveolar sacs and alveoli Lobule Opening of alveolar duct Pores of Kohn Subdivisions of intrapulmonary airways Structure of intrapulmonary airways Eyre 23.9b: Anatomy of the respiratory membrane, page 846 Capillaries Smooth muscle Elastic fibers Alveolus wwmmmawmmm W 23.04:, ll: Anatomy of the respiratory membrane, page 846 Wm!" ((lsulllladmt- - Type I cell resonating» M of alveolar wall Red blood oell Epithelial cell nucleus Capt Ila , g Endothelial cell ry nucleus Capillary Nucleus < . ‘1‘ Macrophage Type I 1% _ (squamon epithelial] Respiratory Alveolar epithelium cell membrane \ Fused basal laminas - a 1, of the alveolar epithelium * K * and the capillary endothelium Alveoli (gas-filled Red blood cell Alveolar pores Capillary endothelium airspaces) (e) Dopyright © Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. H“ NW file: WW coupling, page “I ->\--> Redlwed alveolar ventilation; Pulmonary arterioles Reduced alveolar ventilation; excessive perfusion serving these alveoli reduced perfusion constrict Enhanced alveolar ventilation; Pulmonary arterioles Enhanced alveolar ventilation; inadequate perfusion serving these alveoli enhanced perfusion dilate Copyright © Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Wire 23.12: lntrapuhonary and intrapleural pressure relationships, page 851 Atmospheric pressure Lung lntrapleural pressure Thoracic wall 756 mm Hg (—4 mm Hg) Parietal pleural Collapsing Pleural force of lungs cavity 4 mm Hg Visceral pleura Diaphragm lntrapulmonary pressure 760 mm Hg (0 mm Hg) Wright @ haw am an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman. Inc. Muscles of inspiration Muscles of expiration Accessory , Stern-ocleidomastnid (elevates sternum) ‘ < Scalenes Anterior ‘ i ; - Middle Posterior ‘ , g ‘ ‘ -> f, (elevate and fix ; . ‘ i J ._ - upper ribs) "114$, ‘ , s ~.‘ 7‘ ’ . ‘ j? e. m I :x‘ © Novanis (a) Spirographic record for a male Copyright © Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. blue 25%: W volumes and capacities, page 856 Adult male Adult female average value average value Description . Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory Total lung capacuty (TLC) 6000 mi 4200 ml effort: TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV Hesprrawry capacities Zb) Summary of respiratory volumes and capacities for males and females :opyright © Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. ...
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