Lab Lecture 2 - Bone, Muscle & ...

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Unformatted text preview: Bone, Muscle & Cardiovascular system 1 OUTLINE !   Bone ! ! ! ! ! !   Gross Anatomy of Bone   OrganizaBon of compact bone   OrganizaBon of spongy bone   ComposiBon of bone   FuncBons of bone   Bone Remodeling !   Joints Cardiovascular System !  Structure of Heart !  Path of Blood !  Path of DepolarizaBon !  Cardiac Cycle !  CirculaBon of Blood !  Clinical ApplicaBons !   Muscle ! ! ! !   FuncBons and CharacterisBcs   Gross Anatomy of Muscle   Microscopic Anatomy of Muscle   ExcitaBon- ContracBon Coupling 2 Bone 3 Gross anatomy of a Long bone •  Structure –  Diaphysis: forms the long axis of the bone –  Epiphysis: the bone ends •  Tissue –  Periosteum: the external bone surface (2layers) •  Outer: fibrous layer •  Inner: osteogenic layer(has osteoblast and –clast) –  Sharpey’s fibers: secure the periosteum to the underlying matrix –  Endosteum: the internal bone surface 4 5 Figure 6.3 OrganizaBon of Compact bone •  Osteon(Harversian system): the structural unit •  Haversian canal(central): –  longBtudinal canal, blood vessels and nerve •  Volkmann’s canal(perforaBng) –  Lies Perpendicular to longBtudinal axis –  Blood vessels and nerve. •  Canaliculi: small hair- like canals •  Lacunae: “liZle lake” •  Lamellae: hollow tude in the matrix 6 OrganizaBon of Spongy bone •  Looks like a poorly organized Bssue •  Trabeculae –  Align precisely along lines of stress –  Help the bone resist stress •  Bone marrow –  Fills spaces between trabeculae 7 8 Figure 6.6 ComposiBon of Bone •  Organic components (flexibility & tensile strength) –  Osteocytes: mature bone cell, maintain the bone matrix –  Osteoblasts: matrix- synthesizing cell(bone growth) –  Osteoclasts: bone- destroying cell –  Osteoid: ground substance, collagen •  Inorganic components (hardness & resist compression) –  HydroxyapaBte crystals (calcium phosphates) 9 Functions of Bone •  •  •  •  •  Support Protection Movement Reservoir for minerals Hematopoiesis 10 High blood calcium TH / Calcitonin bony calcium storage High Blood Ca++ Low Blood Ca++ Low blood calcium PTH bony calcium releasing 11 Figure 6.11 Joint 12 ClassificaBons of Joints Structural Functional Fibrous Synarthrotic Cartilaginous Amphiarthrotic Synovial Diarthrotic *Structural classifications refer to the material binding the joint together and whether or not the joint has a joint cavity. **Functional classifications refer to the amount of movement allowed in the joint. 13 Fibrous joints (Synarthrotic) •  No joint cavity is present; bones joined by fibrous tissue. •  Most are immovable. •  3 types –  Sutures: bones of skull –  Synchondrosis : held by hyaline cartilage. •  Ex) epiphyseal plates b/w diaphysis & epiphysis. –  Gomphosis: tooth in bony alveolar socket 14 Cartilaginous joints (Amphiarthrotic) •  Lacks joint cavity; bones joined by cartilage. •  Not highly movable. •  2 types –  Syndesmosis: united by a ligaments Ex) b/w tibia & fibula, radius & ulna. –  Symphysis: united by fibrocartilage Ex) intervertebral joints, pubis symphysis 15 16 Figure 8.2 Synovial joints (Diarthrotic) •  •  •  •  Periosteum Reinforcing ligaments Synovial cavity Articular(hyaline) cartilage •  Articular(joint) capsule •  Synovial Membrane 17 18 Figure 8.7a–c 19 Figure 8.7d Types of levers •  1st class- joint b/w muscle & weight (most efficient ) •  2nd class- weight b/w muscle & joint •  3rd class- muscle b/w weight & joint (least efficient, but speed gained) 20 21 Joint injuries & Inflammatory condiBons •  Sprain– stretching or tearing a ligament •  Strain– stretching or tearing a tendon or muscle •  DislocaBons (luxaBon)– separaBon of two bones where they meet at a joint •  BursiBs (pain, swelling) •  TendoniBs( rest, ice, anB- inflammatory) •  ArthriBs (inflammatory or degeneraBve) 22 Muscle Tissue 23 24 Table 9.3.1 25 Figure 9.2a 26 Figure 9.5 27 Figure 9.3c–e 28 Figure 9.4 29 30 Figure 9.11 power stroke 31 Figure 9.12 Wave Summation and Tetanus 32 Types of ContracBons •  Concentric - shortening of muscle –  resistance is less than force •  Eccentric - lengthening of muscle –  resistance is greater than force •  Isometric - muscle length is staBc, yet muscle is acBvated –  resistance is equal to force 33 34 Figure 9.22 Cardiovascular System 35 36 Figure 18.4b Function •  To circulate blood throughout the body • Pumping blood through the lungs removes carbon dioxide and refreshes the blood with oxygen • The oxygenated blood is pumped to the body to provide oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. 37 Bicuspid valve 38 After passing through the capillaries of the lungs, the blood which is now oxygenated returns to the heart in the pulmonary veins. From lungs 39 The left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary vein. It passes through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. 40 Blood travels to all regions of the body where it feeds cells with oxygen picked up from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract. 41 Deoxygenated blood returns from the rest of the body through the superior and inferior vena cava. 42 Chordae tendinae 43 Figure 18.4e 44 45 46 Figure 18.14 Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) 47 Figure 18.16 Clinical Applications •  •  •  •  •  Risk Factors in Heart Disease CAD: Coronary Artery Disease Cardiac arrest Cardiomegaly Palpitation 48 Play with Work sheets 49 Answers of the heart 50 Answers of bone 51 Home work •  Go over today’s lab section. •  Muscle cards #9-16 •  Preview the next week. 52 ...
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