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Quant_Lect_Spec_I - Spectroscopy Introduction Page 1 of 3...

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Introduction to Spectroscopy I. The basic relationships: E = h ν = hc/λ λ ν = c. Wavenumber: . II. Units: wavelength in meters, mm, micrometers, nanometers, Angstroms. Wavenumber in cm -1 or m -1 (Kaysers). Power in photons s -1 or watts, intensity in photons cm -2 s -1 or watts cm -2 . III. The basic measurements: emission, absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence, scattering, refraction. Spectrometer Any instrument that measures light intensity as a function of wavelength, energy, or frequency Colorimeter A spectrometer that works at a fixed wavelength, either because the light source outputs only a narrow range of wavelengths, a filter passes only a narrow range or wavelengths, or the detector is sensitive only over a narrow range of wavelengths Spectrophotometer A spectrometer designed to measure the ratio of intensity in the presence vs. the absence of a sample. Spectrograph A spectrometer that measures intensity at multiple, resolved wavelengths simultaneously. Interferometer A device that can vary the phase shift of multiple wavelengths simultaneously. Interferometers generate the Fourier transform of a spectrum IV. The basic processes: rotational, vibrational, electronic transitions. V. Spectral regions: x-ray (0.01 nm to 10 nm; inner shell atomic transitions)
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