ANIMAL GENOMICS

ANIMAL GENOMICS - Male: ABCD Female: ABCD > gamete...

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Male: ABCD Female: ABCD > gamete possibilities: AC, AD, BC, BD AC BC AD BD AC AACC 4 ABCC 3 AACD 3 ABCD 2 BC ABCC 3 BBCC 2 ABCD 2 BBCD 1 AD AACD 3 ABCD 2 AADD 2 ABDD 1 BD ABCD 2 BBCD 1 ABDD 1 BBDD 0 AACC 1,AACD 2, AADD 1, ABCC 2, ABCD 4, ABDD 2, BBCC 1, BBCD 2, BBDD 1. A = + C = + B = 0 D = 0 when you have many loci with at least two alleles you will have so many categories of phenotypes, that there are no way to categorize them. ==> quantitative trait! Examples: height, skin color, foot length, body weight, hair curliness, birth weight, milk yield, temperment. .. Quantitative traits, difficult to categorize, multilocus control, often have environmental influence. We cant designate a genotype (too many loci) use quantitative model. P (phenotypes) = G (genetic) + E(environment) Is all the genetic material inherited? No, mutations, deletions and random assortment during mitosis. G = BV (breeding value) + GCV (gene combinations value) BV = genetic value of this animal that can be transferred to the next generation. GVC = unique genetic component of this animal this generation, not inherited. Example. Polled locus in Hereford cattle one locus, alleles are P = polled h = horned P= dominant how many horns? Phenotypes Genotype Gamete BV GCV 0 PP P 0 0 0 PH P,H 1 (0 + 2 = 2/2 = 1) -1 2 HH H 2 0
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P = G P = BV + GCV 0 = 0 + 0 0 = 1 + -1 GCV is really a function of diploids where only ½ of a genotype is passed on. P = G + E P = BV + GCV + E P = BV + GCV + TEE + PEE TEE = Temporary Environmental Effect = unique to this individual (not inherited) PEE = Permanent Environmental Effect = can be constructed to be inherited heritability: degree to which P is inherited by the next generation H^2 =proportion of a phenotype that is inherited H^2 = BV + PEE / P Associated with a trait, not a individual. Traits with high h^2, has low environmental influences. Traits with high h^2: baldness, eye color, skin color, hair/coat color, finger prints (?!?!?!), growth rate or body type, disease resistance, Traits with low h^2: reproductive efficiency, high h^2 traits are good selection targets. April 20, 2010 Reviewing the exam: mating of unlike specimens is negative assortment simple traits ---- easily categorized --- continuum---- complex traits difficult to categorize “quantitative” traits many genes/loci. few genes/loci --- “quantitative model” for “genetics” simply P = G + E G = BV + GCV P = BV + GCV + E (PEE + TEE)
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more specifically phenotype = populations average + breeding value + gene combination value + environmental average BV = average GCV = any E = 0 phenotype = populations average. Deviations from mean can be positive, negative or zero. Sigma squared = variation heritability = variation in the breeding value/ variation in the phenotype Proportion of variation in phenotype that is due to variation in breeding value and can be passed on. .. if you were breeding animals the only thing of importance if the breeding value as it will be the only thing to be passed on.
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2012 for the course ASCI 302 taught by Professor Peterson during the Spring '12 term at Cal Poly.

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ANIMAL GENOMICS - Male: ABCD Female: ABCD > gamete...

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