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Motivation 2_10_11 post

Motivation 2_10_11 post - Motivation Motivation If you...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Motivation 2/10/11 If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there ­ The smiling Cheshire cat (Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland) 1 Announcements Announcements The following has been posted on the class The website: website: Revised schedule for course (given snow days) Vsimulation worksheet 1 due 2/15/1 Exam 1 scores posted Any groups willing to volunteer to rpesent Any on the 28th? If not, I will have to randomly on If choose some groups. choose Will post assigned presentation dates by end Will of the week. of 2 Class Agenda Class Motivation defined Theories of motivation Expectancy theory (last class) Psychological Empowerment (last class) Goal setting theory (today) Equity theory (today) How important is motivation? (today) 3 Motivation Defined Motivation A set of energetic forces that originate set within and outside an employee that initiates work-related effort and determines its direction, intensity, and and persistence persistence 4 Goal Setting Theory Goal Motivation is fostered when employees Motivation are given specific and difficult goals specific difficult Rather than no goals, easy goals, or “do Rather your best” goals your Supported in a variety of jobs Beaver trappers, Salespeople, Engineers, Beaver Assembly line workers, Baggage handlers, College students, Loggers College 5 Goal Setting Theory Goal 6 “SMART” Goals Specific (as opposed to vague) Measurable (quality and quality important) Attainable Attainable Realistic and challenging Realistic Consider individuals’ skills, abilities, and goal Consider orientation (learning vs. performance) orientation Results-oriented Results-oriented Goals should start with the word to followed by Goals verbs such as complete, acquire, produce, increase, and decrease rather than develop, conduct, implement, or monitor conduct, Time bound Specifies target date of completion 7 Goal Setting Theory Goal 8 Strategies for Fostering Goal Commitment Goal 9 Feedback: An Essential Aspect Feedback: of Goal Setting of Mean Group Effectiveness Index High 500 Feedback + goal setting + incentives (530) Feedback + goalsetting (520) 400 Feedback and goal setting improved group effectiveness even more Feedback (380) 300 200 Baseline (before feedback) (108) Feedback improved group effectiveness 100 Low 1-9 10-14 15-19 Time (in months) 20-24 12 Utility of Goal Setting Utility Goals are useful for two purposes in most Goals organizations: organizations: Goals provide a useful framework for Goals managing motivation managing Managers and employees can set goals for Managers themselves and then work toward them, and evaluate their progress evaluate Goals are an effective control device; control Goals is monitoring by management of how well the organization is performing organization 11 Goal Setting Dangers Goal Difficult with complex work Overemphasizes quantitative Non-goal areas ignored Competing Goals Unintended Consequences Rewarding A while getting B Management By Objectives (MBO) Management Applied version of goal setting that Applied incorporates: incorporates: Participation in decision-making Goal setting Feedback Research has found an average gain in Research productivity of 56% when top management commitment was high and only 6% when commitment was low commitment 13 Management By Objectives Management Positive effects unlikely when: Some managers use it and others don’t Some Top management is not strongly Top committed committed Organizations with culture of high commitment Organizations to MBO report an average productivity gain of 56% in first several years 56% Low commitment, 6% gain Expectations are unrealistically high 14 Equity Theory Equity Motivation is maximized when an Motivation employee’s ratio of “outcomes” to “inputs” matches those of some “comparison other” “comparison 15 Three Three Possible Outcomes of Outcomes Equity Theory Comparisons 16 16 Some Outcomes and Inputs Considered by Equity Theory Considered 17 Responses to Equity/Inequity Responses Comparison of Self with Others Inequity Motivation to reduce inequity 1. Change inputs 2. Change outcomes 3. Alter perceptions of self 4. Alter perceptions of others 5. Change comparisons 6. Leave situation Equity Motivation to maintain current situation *Motivation to restore equity is in part determined by: Equity sensitivity – An individual’s tolerance for negative and positive inequity 18 Equity Theory Equity How universal is this? Monkey equity Humans differ in “equity sensitivity “Benevolents” “Equity sensitives” “Entitleds” 19 Compensation Plan Elements Compensation ELEMENT DESCRIPTION Individual-Focused Piece-Rate A specified rate is paid for each unit produced, each unit sold, or each service provided. Merit Pay An increase to base salary is made in accordance with An performance performance evaluation ratings. Lump-Sum Bonuses A bonus is received for meeting individual goals but no change is made to base salary. The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay that must be re-earned each year. Base salary may be lower in cases in which potential bonuses may be large. Recognition Awards Tangible awards (gift cards, merchandise, trips, special events, time off, plaques) or intangible awards (praise) are given on an impromptu basis to recognize achievement. 20 Compensation Plan Elements, Cont’d Compensation ELEMENT DESCRIPTION Unit-Focused Gainsharing A bonus is received for meeting unit goals (department goals, plant goals, business unit goals) for criteria controllable by employees (labor costs, use of materials, quality). No change is made to base salary. The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay that must be re-earned each year. Base salary may be lower in cases in which potential bonuses may be large. Organization-Focused Profit Sharing A bonus is received when the publicly reported earnings of a company exceed some minimum level, with the magnitude of the bonus contingent on the magnitude of the profits. No change is made to base salary. The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay that must be re-earned each year. Base salary may be lower in cases in which potential bonuses may be large. 21 Why Are Some Employees More Motivated Than Others? Motivated 22 Motivational Forces related to Task Performance Task In order of strength (strongest to weakest) Self-efficacy / competence People who feel a sense of internal self-confidence People tend to outperform those who doubt their capabilities capabilities Specific and difficult goals The motivational force created by high levels The of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy of Perceptions of equity 23 How Important is Motivation? How 24 Take Aways: Take Management’s Responsibilities Hire people who can be motivated Align performance goals and company goals Pursue reasonable, challenging goals Provide clear performance expectations & Provide feedback feedback Ensure your people are trained & supported Provide valued rewards Have courage in rewarding & confronting poor Have performance – make strong P-O links performance Make hiring and promotion decisions on meritbased, job-related information Next Time Next Trust, Justice, & Ethics 26 ...
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