CH1.pdf - 1 CH 1 MAJOR THEMES OF A&P 1.1A ANATOMY THE STUDY...

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1CH 1: MAJOR THEMES OF A&P 1.1A: ANATOMY - THE STUDY OF FORM Inspection: looking at the bodyPalpation: feeling the structureAuscultation: listening to the sounds madePercussion: tapping on the bodyDissection: cutting and separating tissuesComparative anatomy: studying multiple species to examine similarities/differencesExploratory surgery: opening the body to look insideGross anatomy: structures that can be seen with the naked eyeHistology: microscopic anatomy, observing tissue specimens under the microscopeCytology: the study of structure and function of cellsUltrastructure: fine detail down to the molecular level, revealed by electron microscope1.1B: PHYSIOLOGY: THE STUDY OF FUNCTION Much of what we know about the body has been learned through comparative physiology, the study of how different species function1.2A: GREEK & ROMAN LEGACY Hippocrates:Established the Hippocratic Oath, encouraged people to look for natural causes of disease rather than to think it was caused by gods and demons.Aristotle:Believed diseases and events could have either supernatural causes or natural ones.Believed complex structures are built from smaller, more simple components.Galen:Created a medical textbook, learned from treating gladiators wounds and dissecting pigs, monkeys and other animals.1.2B: THE BIRTH OF MODERN MEDICINE Maimonides: Jewish physician who wrote influential medical books on diseaseAvicenna: Muslim scholar who wrote an influential textbook that was used for 500 yearsModern medicine began in the 16th century: Andreas Vesalius: used dissection on cadavers, was able to publish accurate illustrations for teaching anatomyWilliam Harvey: helped to develop modern physiology, with Michael Servetus. knew that blood circulated from the heart to other organs and those organs consumed it.Robert Hooke: designed the compound microscope, with improved optics. Observed slices of cork and discovered they were made of little boxes, “cellulae”.Antony van Leeuwenhoek: invented a simple single-lens microscope with up to 200x magnification, observed organisms swimming in water. These early microscopes produced poor images with blurry edges known as spherical aberrationsand rainbow-like distortions, chromatic aberrations.Matthias Schlieiden & Theodore Schwann concluded that all organisms are composed of cells, which eventually became the first principle of cell theory.

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