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chapter_8_outline - Chapter 8 Outline(s and Questions for...

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Chapter 8 Outline(s) and Questions for Review Outline Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Part One 1. Binary Fisson -A means of sexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size. 1.) As the chromosomes is duplicating one copy moves toward the opposite end of the cell. 2.) Meanwhile, as chromosome duplication progresses the cell elongates. 3.) When chromosome duplication is complete and the bacterium has reached about twice it's initial size the plasma membrane grows inward, dividing the parent cell into two daughter cells. 2. Asexual Reproduction -The creation of offspring by a single parent without the participation of sperm and egg. 3. The Cell Cycle - An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own divisions into two cells 4.)The Steps in Mitosis- Interphase , most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase. This is a time when a cells metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs its various functions within the organism. A cell in interphase increases its its supply of proteins creates more cytoplasmic organelles (such as mitochondria and ribosomes), and grows in size. Chromosomes duplicate in this period. Typically interphase lasts for 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. Interphase can be divided into 3 subphases. G1 phase: continues to grow as it copies its chromosomes S: and then it grows more as it completes preparation for cells division. G1 The Mitotic Phase - (m phase) the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually divides accounts for only about 10% of the total time required for the cycle. The mitotic phase is divided into two stages called mitosis and cytokinesis although the second begins before the first one ends. In mitosis the nucleus and its contents including duplicated chromosomes divide and are evenly distributed to form two daughter nuclei. During cytokinesis the cytoplasm is divided into two. The combination of mitosis and cytokinesis produces two genetically identical daughter cells each with a new nucleus. Surrounding by cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Prophase- Within the nucleus chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and folded forming discrete chromosomes that can be seen with a light telescope. The nucleoli disappear. Each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids joined together with a narrow waist at the centromere. In the cytoplasm the microtubules rapidly grow out from centronomes which began to move away from each other. Prometaphase- The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears. Microtubles emerging from the centrosomes at the poles of the spindle reach the chromosomes now highly condensed. At the centromere region each sister chromotid has a protein structure called a kinetochore. Some of the spindle microtubules make contact with microtubules coming from the opposite pole.
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