Kingdoms - Kingdom Monera Of the five kingdoms (Monera,...

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Kingdom Monera Of the five kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia) Monera is the only "kingdom" containing prokaryotic organisms. Remember that the classification we are using is outdated and that "Kingdom Monera" is now 2 domains, the Archaebacteria and the Eubacteria. Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having no membrane bound organelles. This means they have no nucleus or any other specialized sections of the cell. Due to this lack, these cells are limited by the rate of diffusion across the cell to obtain nutrients and other necessities. As a result, these organisms are single cells and very small. These cells can be compared to more advanced cells, the eukaryotic cells, which have membrane bound organelles. These organelles are specialized areas within the cell that are partitioned via sections of cell membrane. The specialization allows for movement other than simple diffusion across the cell, further allowing for an increase in cell size, and ultimately to the specialization of groups of cells (tissues), giving rise to multicellular creatures. Images courtesy of Molecular Expressions Click here for a brief time line of the history of earth. Bacteria are generally classified first by the shape of the cell. There are three shapes of bacteria. Gram staining is another method of classifying bacteria, based on the structure of the cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan molecules arranged in a grid-like structure around the cell. A gram positive cell will appear purple because the cell wall is composed only of these peptidoglycans. A gram negative cell will appear pink because in addition to the peptidoglycans, there is a lipid bilayer coating the grid, preventing the gram stain from sticking to the cell. Antibiotics are substances that prevent the proliferation of bacteria. They tend to be effective against particular bacteria depending on cell wall structure. We observed plates of bacteria treated with various antibiotics to see if the bacteria were sensitive to the antibiotic. Symbiosis is defined as two or more organisms living together. It is common that one of the organisms lives in or on the other. Mutualism is where both organisms benefit from this association. Commensalism is when one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Parasitism is where one benefits by harming the other. We looked at
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2012 for the course BIO 124 taught by Professor Caralee during the Spring '08 term at New Mexico.

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Kingdoms - Kingdom Monera Of the five kingdoms (Monera,...

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