Macromolucules

Macromolucules - Biological Macromolecules Base Elements,...

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Biological Macromolecules Base Elements, Monomers and Polymers Biological macromolecules are defined as large molecules made up of smaller organic molecules. There are four classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In this lab, you will learn about the first three, nucleic acids will be covered in a later lab (DNA Structure). The base elements of carbohydrates and lipids are Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). Protein is also made up of these base elements but it also contains Nitrogen (N). When viewing the chemical structures of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins you can distinguish proteins from the other two by the presence of N in its chemical structure. Carbohydrate (glucose) molecule in ring form. The five unlabeled corners represent carbon bonds. A lipid (triglyceride) molecule. A protein molecule. X denotes a functional group. Note the presence of N. Each macromolecule is made up of smaller organic molecules. For carbohydrates and proteins these smaller molecules are known as monomers. These similar or identical monomers are covalently bonded together to create a large polymer molecule. The monomer unit for carbohydrates is a monosaccharide or a simple sugar. When two of these monosaccharides are linked by covalent bonds a disaccharide is created. When several monosaccharides are bonded together a polysaccharide, or complex sugar, is created. Polysaccharides are the polymers of carbohydrates. Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. There are twenty amino acids and they can be strung together in unique combinations known as polypeptide chains, the polymer unit for proteins. A protein is only complete and functional when the polypeptide chain is folded into a unique 3-D shape, a concept discussed in your textbook. The exception to the monomer/polymer rule is lipids. Lipid base units are not considered monomers. One
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2012 for the course BIO 124 taught by Professor Caralee during the Spring '08 term at New Mexico.

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Macromolucules - Biological Macromolecules Base Elements,...

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