AP Study Guide Ch 30 Done

AP Study Guide Ch 30 Done - Chapter 30 Study Guide How...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 30 Study Guide How Animals Move Gait analysis and the study of biomechanics began in the early 1900s with the research of Eadweard Muybridge. He used photography to explore movement. Recent studies that investigate movement are leading to new ways to help people who have difficulty (for a variety of reasons) moving. Movement and Locomotion Animals move in a wide variety of ways: fly, crawl, swim, walk, run, and hop. The focus in this chapter is on locomotion, or the ability to move from place to place through the expenditure of energy. Locomotion in all its forms requires an animal to overcome two forces: friction and gravity. Swimming: Water supports against gravity but offers considerable frictional resistance. Locomotion on Land: Hopping, Walking, Running, and Crawling: Land animals must not only overcome gravity, they must also maintain their balance whether moving forward or while at rest because air offers little support. There are some exceptions to the above statement. Animals that crawl (snakes and worms) must overcome considerable friction. These land animals crawl by undulating movements or by peristalsis. During peristalsis, longitudinal muscles shorten and thicken regions, while circular muscles constrict and elongate other regions. In an earthworm, bristles anchor the short, thick regions, and regions anterior to them lengthen. Flying: Air offers little resistance but provides little support. Skeletal Support There are three main types of skeletons: hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons. Hydrostatic skeleton: A hydrostatic skeleton consists of a volume of fluid held under pressure in a body compartment. Such skeletons work well for aquatic animals and animals that burrow by peristalsis. Exoskeleton: An exoskeleton consists of a rigid, external, armor like covering. Muscles are attached to the inner surface of the exoskeleton. At joints, the exoskeleton is thin and flexible. Endoskeleton: An endoskeleton consists of rigid, internal supports, usually consisting of noncellular material secreted by surrounding cells. Despite the structural differences, most vertebrates share two similar skeletal features. The
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 3

AP Study Guide Ch 30 Done - Chapter 30 Study Guide How...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online