30_InstGuide_AR

30_InstGuide_AR - Chapter 30 How Animals Move Chapter 30....

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C h a p t e r 3 0 “How Animals Move” Chapter 30. p.605 Learning Objectives Introduction Describe the field of biomechanics, noting what animal systems are studied. Movement and Locomotion 30.1 Describe the diverse methods of locomotion and the forces each must resist. Skeletal Support 30.2 Describe the three main types of skeletons. Note their advantages, their disadvantages, and examples of each. 30.3 Describe the common features of terrestrial vertebrate skeletons, distinguishing between the axial and appendicular skeletons and noting the special skeletal adaptations of humans. Describe three types of joints, and provide examples of each. 30.4 Describe the complex structure of a bone, noting the major tissues that contribute to bones and their functions. 30.5 Explain why bones break and how we can help them heal. 30.6 Describe the causes of osteoporosis. Muscle Contraction and Movement 30.7 Explain how muscles and the skeleton interact to cause movement. Explain how muscles lengthen again once contracted. 30.8 Describe the structure and arrangement of the filaments found in a muscle cell. 30.9 Explain how a muscle cell contracts. 30.10 Explain how motor units control muscle contraction. 30.10 Explain how a motor neuron makes a muscle fiber contract. 30.10 Describe the role of calcium in a muscle contraction. 30.11 Explain what causes muscles to fatigue. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Note the advantages of each. 30.12 Describe an example of an animal using its sensory receptors, central nervous system, skeleton, and muscles to perform an activity.
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Key Terms anaerobic exercise appendicular skeleton axial skeleton ball-and-socket joints endoskeleton exoskeleton hinge joint hydrostatic skeleton ligaments motor units myofibril neuromuscular junctions osteoporosis pivot joint red bone marrow sarcomeres skeletal muscle sliding-filament model tendons thick filament thin filament yellow bone marrow Word Roots endo- 5 within (endoskeleton: a hard skeleton buried within the soft tissues of an animal, such as the spicules of sponges, the plates of echinoderms, and the bony skeletons of vertebrates) hydro- 5 water (hydrostatic skeleton: a skeletal system composed of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment; the main skeleton of most cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes, and annelids) myo- 5 myscle; -fibro 5 fiber (myofibril: a fibril collectively arranged in longitudinal bundles in muscle cells; composed of thin filaments of actin and a regulatory protein and thick filaments of myosin) para- 5 near (parasympathetic division: one of two divisions of the autonomic nervous system) sarco- 5 flesh; -mere 5 a part (sarcomere: the fundamental, repeating unit of striated muscle, delimited by the Z lines) Lecture Outline Introduction Elephants Do the “Groucho Gait”
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A. Gait analysis and the study of biomechanics began in the early 1900s with the research of Eadweard Muybridge. He used photography to explore movement. Recent studies that investigate movement are leading to new ways to help
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30_InstGuide_AR - Chapter 30 How Animals Move Chapter 30....

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