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AP Study Guide Ch 30

AP Study Guide Ch 30 - • Explain how a muscle cell...

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Chapter 30 Study Guide How Animals Move Describe the field of biomechanics, noting what animal systems are studied. Movement and Locomotion Describe the diverse methods of locomotion and the forces each must resist. Skeletal Support Describe the three main types of skeletons. Note their advantages, their disadvantages, and examples of each. Describe the common features of terrestrial vertebrate skeletons, distinguishing between the axial and appendicular skeletons. Note the special skeletal adaptations of humans. Describe three types of joints, and provide examples of each. Describe the complex structure of a bone, noting the major tissues that contribute to bones and their functions. Explain why bones break and how we can help them heal. Describe the causes of osteoporosis. Muscle Contraction and Movement Explain how muscles and the skeleton interact to cause movement. Explain how muscles lengthen again once contracted. Describe the structure and arrangement of the filaments found in a muscle cell.
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Unformatted text preview: • Explain how a muscle cell contracts. • Explain how motor units control muscle contraction. • Explain how a motor neuron makes a muscle fiber contract. • Describe the role of calcium in a muscle contraction. • Explain what causes muscles to fatigue. • Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Note the advantages of each. • Describe an example of an animal using its sensory receptors, central nervous system, skeleton, and muscles to perform an activity. Key Terms • anaerobic exercise • appendicular skeleton • axial skeleton • ball-and-socket joints • endoskeleton • exoskeleton • hinge joint • hydrostatic skeleton • ligaments • motor units • myofibril • neuromuscular junctions • osteoporosis • pivot joint • red bone marrow • sarcomeres • skeletal muscle • sliding-filament model • tendons • thick filament • thin filament • yellow bone marrow...
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