Chapter 22 Lecture Outline

Chapter 22 Lecture Outline - Chapter 22 Study Guide Caryn...

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Chapter 22 Study Guide Caryn p3 1. Many animals are capable of exchanging gases from environments humans would find inhospitable. Some birds can stand the cold and low oxygen concentrations of altitudes of 20,000–30,000 feet. They have more efficient lungs, hemoglobin with a very high affinity for oxygen, a larger number of capillaries, and muscle proteins that hold oxygen. 2. People born in and adapted to high altitudes have relatively large lungs and hearts, more red blood cells, and elevated hemoglobin concentrations. A short period of conditioning will help those living in lower altitudes acclimate to higher altitudes. Faster heart rate and larger capillary diameter are replaced over time with deeper and more rapid rates of breathing, more capillaries, and higher numbers of red blood cells and levels of hemoglobin. I. Mechanisms of Gas Exchange - There are three steps to gas exchange: 1. Breathing involves inhaling O 2 and exhaling CO 2 2. The transport of gases involves diffusion into and transport by hemoglobin in the red blood cells of the circulatory system. 3. Blood supplies every cell with O 2 and picks up waste CO 2 . - The portion of an animal where gas exchange with the environment takes place is called the respiratory surface. Respiratory surfaces vary among animal groups. However, what all respiratory surfaces have in common is that they must be moist, thin, and extensive. Gases must be dissolved in water before they can diffuse across a body surface. - There are four types of respiratory: 1. Earthworms and other “skin breathers” must live in moist environments to keep their skin moist. Small size or flatness provides the high ratio of respiratory surface to body volume required for efficient gas exchange between environment and cells 2. Gills have evolved in most aquatic animals to increase the respiratory surface. They generally project from the body surface.
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