201 Lecture 13 - Biofuels Charcoal ­ the oldest form of...

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Unformatted text preview: Biofuels Charcoal ­ the oldest form of “biofuel” From Chapter 4 Boyle BSE 201 Lecture 13 1 Energy Product Options From Wood Bio­oil or pyrolysis oil 2 production plants completed in Ontario, CA (130 and 200 MT/day) (see www.dynamotive.com) Feedstock is residual wood, forest thinnings, and “opportunistic” biomass (flooring plant) Dynamotive uses “fast pyrolysis” reaction 1­2 second residence time Maximizes gaseous components that can be condensed to bio­oil BSE 201 Lecture 13 2 Energy Product Options From Wood Bio­oil or pyrolysis oil Pyrolysis reaction produces: 65­72% bio­oil 15­20% char 12­18% non­condensible fuel gases (burned for heating value in process) Composition varies depending on exact biomass source and pyrolysis process BSE 201 Lecture 13 3 Energy Product Options From Wood Bio­oil or pyrolysis oil Bio­oil and char (particulate form) are sold as final products Bio­oil: 15­20 MJ/kg Char: 22­32 MJ/kg Significant breakthough: successful use of bio­oil to power 2.5 MW gas turbine for electricity production (West Lorne Plant/Erie Flooring and Wood Products Site) Use fuel gases for energy BSE 201 Lecture 13 4 Bio­Oil BSE 201 Lecture 13 5 Other Biofuels Bio­diesel: what is it? React vegetable oil with methanol (or ethanol) to produce esters (organic acids) Called a “trans­esterification” reaction Glycerol is a by­product Final product: 37­39 MJ/kg (~90% of petroleum diesel) Current problem is rise in feedstock: canola BSE 201 Lecture 13 6 Other Biofuels Bio­diesel: feedstocks Soybean oil Palm oil Canola oil (Imperium Renewables plant, Hoquiam, WA) Rapeseed oil Used cooking oil (“garage” operations) Virtually any oilseed plant would work BSE 201 Lecture 13 7 Other Biofuels Bio­diesel: Current cost: retail $4.50­$5.50 gallon Most diesel engines will run on 100% bio­diesel Has potential to completely eliminate petroleum diesel Solvency problems with older cars/trucks B5 currently most common BSE 201 Lecture 13 8 Biodiesel BSE 201 Lecture 13 9 Other Biofuels Bio­diesel producers Imperium Renewables (formerly Seattle Biodiesel) Seattle pilot plant and R&D facility Grays Harbor Plant: August 15, 2007 100 million gallons per year Largest biodiesel plant in US BSE 201 Lecture 13 10 Biofuel/Bioenergy Alliances 1. 2. Weyerhaeuser Company and Chevron Inc. ­ “biofuel development” Archer Daniels Midland Company and ConocoPhillips ­ “renewable transportation fuels from biomass” BSE 201 Lecture 13 11 ...
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