Test2a - Pgs. 93-104 I. Voluntariness- Some people use the...

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Pgs. 93-104 I. Voluntariness- Some people use the term voluntariness as a synonym for autonomy. If that were true, then it would deal with “adequate knowledge, the absence of psychological compulsion, and the absence of external constraints” (93). But for our purposes, we will think of voluntariness as the simple idea that a person is not being controlled in some way, i.e. that a person is making decisions for him or herself. A. Conditions that would keep us from having voluntary action would include disease, psychological (or psychiatric) issues, drug use, etc. All of these would hinder our ability to make decisions for ourselves, but the degree is often hard to pin down. 1. Consider psychological problems for example. How would we know whether a person is suffering from a psychological problem? Perhaps we could test the person. But in many cases, we can’t know what counts as normal for a person. Dr. Sharp has lots of silly habits (I’ll give you some in class); do they indicate a psychological problem? 2. What about drug use? Are there people who can function well with drugs in their system, or at least better than others with the same amount of drugs? Which drugs prevent us from taking voluntary actions? These aren’t easily answered. B. For this reason, we will focus on human influence; when do other people interfere with our ability to voluntarily agree to things? That’s the issue. 1. Coercion- coercion involves a threat of direct harm to force another to do one’s bidding. Sexual harassment uses coercion in many cases, but not all. Some threats are more serious than others and some people do not respond to certain threats at all. If someone threatened to expose a secret if you did not cooperate, a lot would depend on the secret and how you feel about it. 2. Persuasion-persuasion involves giving reasons in order to convince someone to
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Test2a - Pgs. 93-104 I. Voluntariness- Some people use the...

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