GeographyNotes

GeographyNotes - Geography 1/18 Key Concepts:...

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Geography 1/18 Key Concepts: Geography/Scientific Systems/Scientific Methods --Geography- GPS (Global Positioning System), GIS (Geographic Information System), Hurricane Tracking, Weather Maps. -Definition- The study of the interdependence among geographic areas, natural systems, people and their activities over space; a spatial science. Geographers use maps. -Geography is a holistic science; 2 types- Human Geography which explores human interactions spatially. Physical Geography which explores environmental interactions. --Systems Science-Systems Theory is the flow of energy. -Open Systems vs Closed Systems- Open Systems are an exchange of energy with surroundings with energy coming in the system and out the system. Closed Systems have no exchange of energy with surroundings and materials are recycled. -Equilibrium is when Input = Output. Earth is an open system, but a closed system in regards to materials. Equilibrium and time-Steady State- vary around an average. Dynamic- trends over time. -Feedback Systems- Positive Loop- have additional forcing in the same direction. Increase temperature, more water vapor, enhances greenhouse
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effect, increase temperature. Negative Loop- opposite direction of additional forcing Increase temperature, increase number of clouds, decrease temperature. Geography 1/20 Key Concepts: Open/Closed Systems/Feedback Systems/Equilibrium/Equatorial/Tropics/Subtropical/Midlatitude/Subarctic/ Arctic/Antarctic…etc --Geodesy- The study of the shape of the Earth; Mean sea level surface- Geoid. --Latitude- Lines that run east to west. Parallel lines called parallels. Degrees- North to South (0-90 degrees N,S). 1 degree latitude= 69 miles. -Important parallels- Equator 0 degrees (only parallel that is a Great Circle), Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees N and Capricorn 23.5 degrees S, Arctic Circle 66.5 degrees N and Antarctic Circle 66.5 degrees S. -Latitudinal geographic zones- Equatorial 5 degrees N-S is within Tropics 23.5 degrees N-S. Subtropical 23.5-35 degrees N, 23.5-35 degrees S. Midlatitude 35-55 degrees N, 35-55 degrees S.
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Subarctic 55-66.5 degrees N, 55-66.5 degrees S. Arctic 66.5-90 degrees N and Antarctic 66.5-90 degrees S. --Longitude- Lines that run north to south. Meridians- degrees that run east to west (180 degrees E-W). Meridians converge at the poles, not parallel. Pairs of meridians are Great Circles. -Important meridians- Prime meridian 0 degrees or Greenwich, Antimeridian 180 degrees, International Date Line. --Distance- ~ means about or approximate. 111.7 km per degree of latitude/longitude. Look at Table in book. --Dimensional Analysis- A method to convert from one known quantity to another, for example converting from inches to centimeters. The key is the units. --Time Zones-24 (24 hours in a day). 360 degrees in a circle/ 24 hours= 15
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GeographyNotes - Geography 1/18 Key Concepts:...

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