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quiz-2-study-guide - Ch 5 Perception and Decision-Making...

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Ch. 5: Perception and Decision-Making Perception-process of organizing and interpreting sensory info to make sense of the world around us Perception Overview Perceptual selection-notice certain things and leaving things out Why do managers care? People act to how they perceive the world, not based on reality Factors that influence Perception Factors in the Perceiver (internal) o Attitudes o Motives o Personality o Interests o Experience o Expectations Factors in the situation o Time of day o Work setting o Social setting Factors in the target (external) o Size-bigger the object is more likely we will notice o Intensity-extremely loud or bright is more noticed o Contrast-things that stick out in background (ex: football game, guys with shirts off) o Motion o Novelty-new or weird/different o Familiarity-similar or familiar to us ALL of these lead to Perception Attribution Process and Errors Attribution-trying to get a tribute to why someone’s behaving (find a cause) Distinctiveness -person acts same in ALL situations o High=external: have a C in 9 o’clock class but A’s in everything else o Low=internal: caused by that specific person Consensus -everyone acting in a similar manner/ ex: everyone getting an A on test
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Consistency -person acting that way over time Fundamental Attribution error: o When it comes to judging other’s behavior, we are going to underestimates external and overestimate internal; when it comes to other people we blame them o When it comes to judging ourselves , we do the opposite; self-serving bias Shortcuts in Judging others (be careful) Selective perception -so much in environment we selectively pay attention to things that are important to us based on your experiences, personality Halo effect - perception/judgment based on one characteristics Contrast effect -tendency for managers/recruiters to compare to one another, not to some objective standard Similarity effect -natural predisposition to like people who are similar to us Primacy effect -basing judgment on 1 st impression Stereotyping- belief that all members of a particular group are sharing the same characteristic Projection -see yourself in other people Expectancy effect -self fulfilling prophecy=if you think someone’s going to be a good employee they will see that in you and start to perform better Decision-Making Rational Decision making (traditional approach)-when people make decisions they are rational and have complete info available able to evaluate all of these alternatives in an unbiased way and will pick solution best for organization Bounded rationality -taking limitations of workplace into account, we don’t know every possible alternative, pick alternative that satisfices one level of the problem (satisficing) Intuition -non conscious process that we develop through experiences, gut feeling OB says that decisions are made best with bounded rationality and intuition Influencing factors: o Personality
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