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Unit01_-_IntroEvidenceMicroscope-2

Unit01_-_IntroEvidenceMicroscope-2 - ForensicsStudyGuide...

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Forensics Study Guide Name_________________________________ CH 1/3/7/8: Evidence and Microscopy Key terms: Give a  brief  definition for each of these terms.  Be sure to know the significance of each.   Chapter 1 Algor mortis –  Entomology -  Expert witness –  Forensic science -  Livor mortis –  Locard’s exchange principle –  Manner of death -  Rigor mortis –  Chapter 3 Individual characteristics –  Class characteristics –  Hearsay -  Relevance - 
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Prejudicial -  Statutory Constraints -  IAFIS –  CODIS –  NIBIN –  Chapter 7 Compound microscope -  Comparison microscope -  Chapter 8 Anagen -  Catagen -  Cuticle –  Cortex –  Follicular tag -  Medulla –  Telogen - 
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1. What important principles were established in the case of  Frye v. United States? 2. How did the court’s ruling in the case of  Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.  affect   the admissibility of  scientific evidence in federal courts?   3. What is the main idea behind the Fourth Amendment 4. Label the following compound microscope: 5. What is the greatest weakness of class evidence? 
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6. For each piece of evidence listed below, indicate whether the item is more likely to possess class or individual  characteristics and explain your answers:  a. An impression from a new automobile tire b. A fingerprint c. Fragments of a multi-layer custom automobile paint d. A spent bullet cartridge 7. Who ultimately determines the significance of physical evidence in a trial?  8. How is the hair cuticle used to identify different animal species?  9. What aspect of the hair cortex is most important for the criminalist and why?   10. Which of the following cannot be confidently determined by a microscopic examination of hair: age, sex, racial  origin, the part of the body from which the hair come, or whether the hair was pulled out or fell out?  
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11. Criminalist Pete Evett is collecting fiber evidence from a murder scene.  He notices fibers on the victim’s shirt  and trousers, so he places both of these items of clothing in a plastic bag.  He also sees fibers on a sheet near the  victim, so he balls up the sheet and places it in a separate plastic bag.  Noticing fibers adhering to the windowsill  from which the attacker gained entrance, Pete carefully removes it with his fingers and places it in a regular  envelope.  What mistakes, if any, did Pete make while collecting this evidence?  12. What was the point of Mr. Porter coming into the classroom?
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