- 2-280 km, no small craters, meteoroids burn up in atmosphere, crater density 15% of lunar Maria (low).
none observed, surface is new.
-cracks and ridges present, continents (Ishtar & Aphrodite), mountains, no plate tectonics.
- 80% of the surface lava plains, happened 500 mya,
large-scale volcanism in the past, lower than it was 500 mya, shield volcanoes, farra (pancake dome), lava rivers, arachnoids, coronas.
96.5% co2, 3.5% N2, air rises at equators sinks at poles.
100x earths, large green house gas effect, very warm no oceans to absorb Co2
735 K (860
177.36, no seasons, retrograde motion.
- composed mostly of sulfuric acid (H2So4) and So2, highly reflective, reflects 60% of sunlight, H2So4 rains
never reaches surface, so hot evaporates quickly.
- similar to earths, partially liquid core, density 5.3 g/cm3.
- extremely weak, slow rotation
117 days-retrograde motion. Sidereal day> solar day.
- similar to airless planets (mercury moon) no rays,
fluidized ejecta, few craters in uplands (erosion erased them), 10(uplands) .1(near volcano of lunar maria).
fewer then moon, erosion geologic activity.
- fracturing on surface, great canyon (half of the US), landslides increase canyon size, no large plates.
-many shield volcanoes, Olympus Mons
largest volcano of any planet, no large composite volcanoes or lava rivers, all volcanoes are dormant.
- wind/water, wind fills craters w/ sand,
- found in uplands, similar to earth drainage system, 4 bya, 10-100 m wide 10-100 km long, few tributaries, small channels erased by erosion, outflow
- confined to equatorial plain, 3 bya, 10km wide, 10-100km long, drop several km in elevation, multiple channels diverge & interconnect, tear shaped inlands
at mouth of outflow, catastrophic flood, chaotic terrain may have continued after flood. Gullies
- found at high latitudes on shaded walls and channels, debris apron on
wind blown deposits, recent occurring, origins
- melting of permafrost due to magma chamber heat.
- fine grained dust, reddish from iron-oxide (rust).
- 95.4% Co2, 2.7% N2, 1.6% Ar, .13% 02, .07% Co, .03% H2o.
1/150 of earths
180K (-125f) to 265k (23f).
25, similar to
- low latitudes, Hadley circulation, high altitudes baroclinic pressure wave, series of high/low pressure areas, has cyclones/dust storms.
density 3.9 g/cm3, Iron sulfide (FeS) core, partially liquid and solid, small magnetic field, mostly crustal in origin, was stronger in past (4bya).
seasonal/permanent ice caps.
- north goes 65* N, south goes 55* S, retreat 20 km/day during spring, composed of Co2 (dry ice).
km in diameter, remains at 150k during summer, composed of h2o and Co2, North- larger, 1000km in diameter, temp rises above 200k in summer, composed of h2o.