09-7 cell parts no class questions

09-7 cell parts no class questions - Inside the Cell...

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Inside the Cell
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Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea Filled with fluid called cytoplasm Little to no sub-cellular compartmentalization Some membrane- or protein-bound storage compartments Photosynthetic prokaryotes have extensive internal membranes and vesicles Cell motility is controlled by whip-like flagella
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Prokaryotic Cells Main chromosomal material is a massive circular molecule Localized as the nucleoid Multiple chromosomes are rare Linear chromosomes are present in a few species Ribosomes float freely in cytoplasm Bacteria may also have smaller, circular DNAs called plasmids Toxin resistance genes Independent replication One to dozens present Cell wall, made of peptidoglycans Enveloped by protective glycolipids Keeps the hypertonic cell from exploding Fig. 7.1
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Various Prokaryotes Leptospira Pseudomonas Helicobacter pylori Staphylococcus aureus Methanococcus sp. Escherichia coli Nostoc (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae)
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Do multi-cellular prokaryotic organisms exist? No (although some form communities that resemble multi-celled organisms)
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Eukaryotic Cells Found in protists, fungi, plants and animals Multiple sub-cellular, membrane-bound compartments – organelles Contain enzymes associated with specific functions Why organelles? Spatial separation of chemically incompatible processes Spatial clustering of related physiological processes Establishment of “zones” of high/low concentrations Increase size of the organism Cells w/specialized functions – tissues and organs
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09-7 cell parts no class questions - Inside the Cell...

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