09-8 Respiration glycolysis

09-8 Respiration glycolysis - Metabolism Energy Key...

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Metabolism
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Energy – Key Concepts Energy is neither created nor destroyed First law of thermodynamics Energy can be transformed between different states Potential energy – stored energy Kinetic energy – energy of motion (thermal or heat energy) Each change of energy state is accompanied by an increase in disorder ( entropy ) in a closed system Second law of thermodynamics
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Potential vs. Kinetic Energy Fig 2.16
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Redox ( Reduction-Oxidation ) Reactions Mechanism #1 - Electrons transferred from one molecule to another Electron “loser” becomes oxidized Electron donor Electron “gainer” becomes reduced Electron acceptor Gain/loss of an electron (e - ) is usually accompanied by a gain/loss of a proton (H + )
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Redox ( Reduction-Oxidation ) Reactions Mechanism #2 – Electrons shifted in their positions relative to the nucleus Oxidation – electron moves farther from the nucleus (higher potential energy) Reduction – electron moves closer to the nucleus (lower potential energy, energy converted to heat or light) e- Nucleus + Nucleus + e- Reduction – releases energy Oxidation – requires energy input
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Redox Reactions
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Redox Reactions (cont’d) Reduction of one atom is coupled with oxidation of another in redox reactions Transfer of hydrogen ions (protons, or H + ) neutralizes excess electron (e - )
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Redox Reactions (cont’d) O is reduced (electrons move closer to nucleus) C is oxidized (electrons move farther from nucleus) NOTE: there is an overall decrease in energy as thermal energy
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Redox ( Reduction-Oxidation ) Reactions Combustion (oxidation) of glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy (686 kcal of heat) Note, the carbons in glucose are oxidized , the oxygens in oxygen gas are reduced In cellular respiration, glucose oxidation proceeds through a series of controlled steps and the energy is used to produce ATP!
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Bioenergetics
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course HLTH 311 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '12 term at BYU.

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09-8 Respiration glycolysis - Metabolism Energy Key...

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